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Full text of "Technology Utilization Network System (TUNS): Hardware and software recommendations report"

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Hardware and Software 
Recommendations Report 



June 12, 1987 



TECHNOLOGY UTILIZATION NETWORK SYSTEM (TUNS) 



HARDWARE/SOFTHARE RECOMMENDATIONS REPORT 



NASA CONTRACT NUMBER: NASH-4164 



INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND NETWORKS CORPORATION (ISN) 
10411 MOTOR CITY DRIVE 
BETHESDA, MARYLAND 20817 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

SECTION 1.0 GENERAL 1-1 

1.1 BACKGROUND 1-1 

1.2 METHODOLOGY 1-3 

1.3 REPORT ORGANIZATION 1-4 

1.4 REFERENCES 1-4 

1.5 TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 1-5 

SECTION 2.0 TUNS TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS 2-1 

2.1 ASSUMPTIONS 2-1 

2.2 INFORMATION SHARING 2-2 

2.2.1 DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS) 2-3 

2.2.2 COMMUNICATIONS 2-4 

2.3 TUNS TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS 2-4 

2.4 TUNS CONCEPTUAL DESIGN 2-7 

SECTION 3.0 SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS 3-1 

SECTION 4.0 HARDWARE RECOMMENDATIONS 4-1 

4.1 WORKSTATIONS 4-1 

4.1.1 RECOMMENDED WORKSTATION SPECIFICATIONS 4-1 

4.1.2 RATIONALE 4-2 

4.1.3 ALTERNATIVES 4-3 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

(Continued) 

PAGE 

4 . 2 PRINTERS 4-5 

4.2.1 RECOMMENDED PRINTER SPECIFICATIONS 4-5 

4.2.2 RATIONALE 4-7 

4.2.3 ALTERNATIVES 4-8 

4.3 COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES 4-11 

4.3.1 RECOMMENDED COMMUNICATIONS DEVICE SPECIFICATIONS 4-11 

4.3.2 RATIONALE 4-11 

4.3.3 ALTERNATIVES 4-12 

4.4 ARCHIVING AND BACKUP DEVICES 4-13 

4.4.1 RECOMMENDED ARCHIVING AND BACKUP DEVICE 
SPECIFICATIONS 4-14 

4.4.2 RATIONALE , 4-14 

4.4.3 ALTERNATIVES 4-16 

SECTION 5.0 LOCAL AREA NETWORK RECOMMENDATIONS 5-1 

5.1 LAN OVERVIEW 5-1 

5.1.1 OPEN SYSTEMS INTERCONNECTION MODEL 5-2 

5.1.2 THE LAN PHYSICAL LAYER 5-4 

5.1.2.1 LAN Topologies 5-5 

5.1.2.2 LAN Transmission Media 5-9 

5.1.3 THE LAN DATA LINK LAYER 5-12 

5.1.4 THE LAN SOFTWARE LAYERS 5-14 



ii 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

(Continued) 

PAGE 

5.2 LAN SOFTWARE 5-14 

5.2.1 RECOMMENDED LAN SOFTWARE 5-14 

5.2.2 RATIONALE 5-14 

5.2.3 ALTERNATIVES 5-16 

5.3 LAN HARDWARE 5-16 

5.3.1 RECOMMENDED LAN HARDWARE 5-16 

5.3.2 RATIONALE 5-17 

5.3.3 ALTERNATIVES 5-19 

5.4 LAN FILE SERVERS 5-19 

5.4.1 RECOMMENDED LAN FILE SERVERS 5-19 

5.4.2 RATIONALE 5-20 

5.5 SITE SURVEY REQUIREMENTS 5-21 

SECTION 6.0 SOFTWARE RECOMMENDATIONS 6-1 

6.1 DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 6-1 

6.1.1 RECOMMENDED DBMS 6-1 

6.1.2 RATIONALE 6-1 

6.1.3 ALTERNATIVES 6-6 

6.2 SPREADSHEET 6-6 

6.2.1 RECOMMENDED SPREADSHEET 6-6 

6.2.2 RATIONALE 6-6 



ill 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

(Continued) 

PAGE 

6.2.3 ALTERNATIVE 6-8 

6.3 WORD PROCESSOR 6-9 

6.3.1 RECOMMENDED WORD PROCESSOR 6-9 

6.3.2 RATIONALE 6-9 

6.3.3 ALTERNATIVE 6-11 

6.4 BACKUP AND ARCHIVING 6-12 

6.4.1 RECOMMENDED BACKUP AND ARCHIVING SOFTWARE 6-12 

6.4.2 RATIONALE 6-13 

6.4.3 ALTERNATIVES 6-14 

6.5 COMMUNICATIONS 6-14 

6.5.1 RECOMMENDED COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE 6-14 

6.5.2 RATIONALE 6-14 

6.5.3 ALTERNATIVES 6-16 

6.6 UTILITIES/MISCELLANEOUS 6-16 

6.6.1 RECOMMENDED UTILITIES AND MISCELLANEOUS SOFTWARE 6-16 

6.6.2 RATIONALE 6-16 

SECTION 7.0 ELECTRONIC MAIL 7-1 

7.1 ELECTRONIC MAIL REQUIREMENTS 7-1 

7.2 RECOMMENDED ELECTRONIC MAIL SYSTEM 7-2 

7.3 ALTERNATE ELECTRONIC MAIL SYSTEM # 1 7-5 



IV 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

(Continued) 

APPENDIX A: WORKSTATION SURVEY 

APPENDIX B: PRINTER SURVEY 

APPENDIX C: COMMUNICATIONS DEVICE (MODEM) SURVEY 

APPENDIX D: TAPE BACKUP DEVICE SURVEY 

APPENDIX E: LAN HARDWARE SURVEY 

APPENDIX F: LAN SOFTWARE SURVEY 

APPENDIX G: DBMS EVALUATION RESULTS AND VOLUME ESTIMATES 

APPENDIX H: SPREADSHEET EVALUATION RESULTS 

APPENDIX I: WORD PROCESSING EVALUATION RESULTS 

APPENDIX J: ELECTRONIC MAIL MEMORANDUM 

APPENDIX K: BIBLIOGRAPHY 



LIST OF FIQJRFS 

FIGURE 

2-1 TUNS CONCEPTUAL DESIGN 

3-1 TYPICAL LAN CONFIGURATION 

5-1 OPEN SYSTEMS INTERCONNECTION MODEL LAYERS 

5-2 STAR TOPOLOGY 

5-3 RING TOPOLOGY 

5-4 BUS TOPOLOGY 



PAGE 

2-9 

3-2 

5-3 

5-6 

5-7 

5-8 



VI 



LIST OF TABLES 

TABLE PAGE 

3-1 ESTIMATED COSTS OF CONFIGURED LANS 3-6 

4-1 WORKSTATION DISK REQUIREMENTS 4-3 

4-2 WORKSTATION PRICES 4-4 

4-3 DOT-MATRIX PRINTERS 4-9 

4-4 DAISY-WHEEL PRINTERS 4-10 

4-5 LASER PRINTERS 4-11 

4-6 MODEMS 4-12 

4-7 TAPE BACKUP UNITS 4-16 

5-1 TOPOLOGIES - VULNERABILITY AND EXPANSION CAPABILITIES 5-9 

5-2 TRANSMISSION MEDIA SUMMARY - STAR AND RING TOPOLOGIES 5-11 

5-3 TRANSMISSION MEDIA SUMMARY - BUS TOPOLOGY 5-11 

5-4 ACCESS CONTROL METHODOLOGY 5-13 

5-5 LAN SOFTWARE 5-14 

5-6 LAN HARDWARE 5-18 

5-7 RECOMMENDED FILE SERVERS 5-20 

6-1 DBMS SUITABILITY FOR APPLICATIONS DEVELOPMENT 6-3 

6-2 DBMS SUITABILITY FOR END-USER APPLICATIONS 6-4 

6-3 DBMS COMBINED EVALUATION SUMMARY 6-4 

6-4 SPREADSHEET EVALUATION SUMMARY 6-8 

6-5 WORD PROCESSOR EVALUATION SUMMARY 6-11 

6-6 BACKUP SOFTWARE EVALUATION SUMMARY 6-13 

6-7 COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE EVALUATION SUMMARY 6-15 

7-1 COMPARISON OF ELECTRONIC MAIL FEATURES 7-3 

7-2 ELECTRONIC MAIL COST COMPARISON 7-4 



vn 



SECTION 1.0 
GENERAL 



The purpose of this report is to make recommendations for hardware and 
off-the-shelf software to be used within the Technology Utilization Network 
System (TUNS). With the overall goal of sharing information to improve 
technology transfer, this document provides the framework and the rationale 
for the hardware and software recommendations. The methodology for selecting 
and evaluating products is described. The TUNS technical requirements are 
defined relative to their impact on the hardware and software selection. A 
summary of the recommendations is presented, followed by detailed 
recommendations for specific hardware and software products to be included in 
TUNS. 

1.1 BACKGROUND 

TUNS will provide NASA TU the benefits of state-of-the-art office 
automation technology in their efforts to capture, evaluate, and disseminate 
technology developed by NASA and by others under contract to NASA. Hhen fully 
implemented, TUNS hardware will include PCs at each TU-related office, local 
area networks, one central computer, and a communications network which 
connects the central computer with all of the PCs. Each location will have a 
variety of software packages (both off-the-shelf and custom designed) to meet 
the needs of users at that site. Each PC will be able to operate 
independently, connected to a local network, and/or as a workstation connected 
to the central computer facility. Communications capabilities will allow each 
PC to transmit and receive data, e.g., New Technology Reports (NTRs), 
management information reports, and budget data. 

TUNS will be a fully integrated hardware and software system which will 
allow for quicker, more uniform, and more efficient information gathering for 
all aspects of contract administration, new technology reporting, and other 
technology transfer activities. It will provide TU Offices with software for 
NTR clause administration, contract correspondence, NTR tracking, awards 
administration, and general office automation. TUNS will also provide 



1-1 



software for use by the Industrial Applications Centers (IACs) and others 
involved in technology transfer. This may include software to assist in the 
preparation and submittal of marketing plans, cost proposal preparation, 
customer support, and general office automation. 

Another feature provided by TUNS will be an automated orientation and 
training facility. This facility will provide PC-based training in the use of 
the off-the-shelf and custom developed TUNS software, as well as TU 
orientations for use in informing contract technical representatives and 
others about their duties as related to TU. 

The system will be developed in two phases. Phase I will concentrate on 
automating the New Technology administration and management functions, as well 
as most of the office automation, orientation, and training functions. Phase 
II will concentrate on automating the IACs, interfacing to the Centers for 
Commercialization and Development of Space, implementing the centrally 
maintained databases, and completing the full network capability. 

The TUNS design takes into consideration both the overall goals of the 
NASA Technology Utilization Division, and the particular needs of the 
end-user. To this end, the TU family has been actively involved in the 
definition of the functional requirements of the system. The Draft TUNS 
Functional Requirements Document (FRD) was reviewed and modified by the TU 
User Working Group to ensure that the users' needs were accurately defined. 

In addition, two surveys solicited input from TU Centers, IACs, and 
support contractors. The TUNS Hardware/Software Survey sought to determine 
the products currently in use in the TU family, so that existing hardware and 
software can be utilized when possible. In addition, these sites were also 
surveyed via electronic mail to determine the capabilities required of word 
processing, spreadsheet, and end-user database management software. 



1-2 



1.2 METHODOLOGY 

The goals of TUNS and the inherent requirements of the system guided the 
selection of hardware and off-the-shelf software for TUNS. The TUNS FRD and 
the site requirements survey identified requisite capabilities. Technical 
requirements, described in this document, further defined the system hardware 
and software. 

The selection process included a literature review, discussions with 
vendors, and hands-on evaluation of selected products. The functional 
requirements provided guidance for an exhaustive literature search. The 
literature search sought to identify currently available products that would 
meet the TUNS requirements. Published product evaluations and product 
documentation were examined to determine which software products would be 
selected for benchmark testing. Final selection of software products for 
evaluation was based on the following factors: the product's ability to meet 
functional and technical system requirements, the ability of the product to 
function effectively and efficiently in the TUNS environment, and the 
product's track record. 

Software engineers performed the software benchmark tests to provide the 
technical perspective. A management analyst was also included in the 
evaluation team in order to provide the end-user's perspective. For each 
software category, the benchmark tests were conducted on the same equipment in 
order to establish hardware-independent comparisons. Word processing software 
was tested on an IBM XT with 640 Kb of RAM memory and a 20 Mb hard disk. 
Spreadsheet and database software were tested on a Compaq 286 with 640 Kb of 
RAM memory and a 20 Mb hard disk. In addition to the performance benchmarking, 
factors such as ease of use, ease of learning, cost, and whether or not the 
product is already installed at the TU sites were used to evaluate the 
software. 

The TUNS Hardware/Software Survey demonstrated that the de facto standard 
for PC hardware is an IBM-compatible PC. TUNS will use this standard for the 
workstation in the system design. 



1-3 



Additional hardware, specifically printers, communications devices, and 
archiving and backup devices, were selected for evaluation based on the 
literature reviews, functional requirements, compatibility with the TUNS 
workstation, and discussions with vendors. The hardware evaluation team 
included software engineers and a systems engineer. 

Local area network (LAN) possibilities were examined by a team consisting 
of a system engineer and an senior software engineer. Functional 
requirements, data specifications, and manufacturers' specifications were 
considerations in the evaluation process, as was the ability of the LAN to 
provide the required hardware and software compatibility and throughput. 

1.3 REPORT ORGANIZATION 

This report is divided into seven major sections, followed by eleven 
appendices. Section 1 provides an overview of TUNS. The methodology used to 
determine the hardware and software recommendations is included, as is a list 
of terms and abbreviations. Section 2 describes the technical requirements of 
TUNS, the assumptions on which they are based, and concludes with the 
conceptual design of the system. Section 3 gives a summary of the hardware 
and software recommendations. These recommendations and the methodology used 
are detailed in Sections 4 through 7. The rationale for the selection of 
specific products is provided and alternate choices, where possible, are 
recommended. The appendices provide backup information from surveys, 
evaluations, and the literature review for the products evaluated. 

1.4 REFERENCES 

A total of six books, 88 articles and reports, and 23 vendor publications 
were examined and used in the literature review portion of the selection 
process for the hardware and off-the-shelf software for TUNS. Product 
evaluations, technical articles, conceptual overviews, and product 
documentation were included. A complete bibliography is found in Appendix K. 
Project references are listed below. 



1-4 



U.S. Small Business Administration, Contract NASW-4164 R&D 806/70108 141- 
10 10-37735 between NASA Headquarters Contracts and Grants Division and 
Information Systems & Networks Corp., July 1986. 

Information Systems & Networks Corp., Technology Utilization Network 
System (TUNS) Overview & Technical Description . September 1986. 

Information Systems & Networks Corp., Technology Utilization Network 
System (TUNS) Functional Requirements Document . February 1987. 

Information Systems & Networks Corp., Technology Utilization Network 
Systems (TUNS) Hardware/Software Survey . March 1987. 

1.5 TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 

The following terms and abbreviations are used in this report. 

ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency 

ASCII American Standard Code Information Interchange 

bps Bits per second 

CSMA carrier-sense multiple access 

CSMA/CD carrier-sense multiple access with collision detection 

cps Characters per second 

CPU Central processing unit 

DBMS Database management system 

DOS Disk operating system 

dpi Dots per inch 

EGA Enhanced graphics adapter 

FRD TUNS Functional Requirements Document 

ft Foot/feet 

Gbps Gigabytes per second 

GSA General Services Administration 

HDLC High Level Data Link Control 

IAC Industrial Applications Center 

ISN Information Systems and Networks Corporation 

Kb Kilobytes 



1-5 



Km Kilometers 

LAN Local area network 

Mb Megabytes 

Mbps Megabytes per second 

MHz MegaHertz 

NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration 

NLQ Near letter quality 

NTR New Technology Report 

PC Personal computer (or single-user microcomputer) 

PSCN Program Support Communications Network 

RAM Random access memory 

SDLC Synchronous Data Link Control 

SNA Systems Network Architecture 

STAC State Technology Application Center 

TU Technology Utilization 

TUNS Technology Utilization Network System 



1-6 



SECTION 2.0 
TUNS TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS 



In addition to the TUNS functional requirements, described in the FRD, the 
TUNS technical requirements are a significant determinant of the hardware and 
off-the-shelf software recommended for the system. This section describes 
those technical requirements, the critical components, and the preliminary 
assumptions that define them. 

2.1 ASSUMPTIONS 

Four preliminary assumptions impact the technical requirements for TUNS. 

o The system be will PC-based in order to fully utilize as much 
existing hardware as possible. It was determined in the TUNS 
Hardware/Software Survey, submitted in March 1987, that over 857. of 
the responding sites reported IBM or compatible PC equipment. ISN 
will, therefore, design TUNS application software and facilities to 
take maximum advantage of this investment in equipment and personnel 
expertise. 

o The system will be integrated; that is, all the components must work 
together. When defining the technical requirements for an integrated 
system, it is essential that the hardware and software components of 
the system be selected to maximize the effectiveness of the system as 
a whole. Certain components are of critical importance and others of 
lesser importance. Before developing hardware and software 
recommendations, it is essential to identify the critical components 
and to evaluate why, and to what degree, they are critical. Then, 
based on the range of acceptable alternatives available for the 
critical components, the technical requirements for the system as a 
whole may be developed. 



2-1 



o The TUNS functional requirements necessitate several methods of 
information sharing. The fundamental concept in the TUNS functional 
requirements consists of sharing information to improve technology 
transfer. The purpose of TUNS is to facilitate and increase the 
sharing of information, both within individual organizations and 
between various organizations (e.g., Centers, Headquarters, IACs, 
STACs). This is best accomplished when information can be stored in 
a shared repository accessible to many users. Depending on the data 
and the user, access may be limited to one user at a time, or many 
users may be allowed to access the information simultaneously. 

o The most critical components of the system are defined by the 
information sharing requirements. Defined within the framework of a 
shared repository, the FRD specifies three different requirements for 
shared repositories within TUNS: a shared repository for electronic 
mall; a shared repository for TUNS-wide information (e.g., the TU 
Team Members directory), referred to as the central site; and a 
locally shared repository for Center-wide, IAC-wide, or STAC-wide, 
information (e.g., contract administration information). 

Therefore, the system will be PC-based, fully integrated, and capable of 
providing information shared both locally and centrally. Since the most 
critical aspect of the system design is its information sharing capability, 
the two most critical components are the database management system and the 
communications requirements for transferring information electronically. The 
following sections describe, in detail, the information sharing components, 
the technical requirements, and conclude with the TUNS conceptual design. 

2.2 INFORMATION SHARING 

The demands of the TUNS-specific applications, specifically to provide 
information sharing capabilities, impose significant technical requirements on 
the system components. Much of the information, such as NTR status, must be 
available to different users (e.g., contract monitors, patent counselors) on 
demand, possibly simultaneously. More precisely, the information should never 
be inaccessible to a user when it is needed. As a result of these 



2-2 



requirements, the two most critical components in TUNS are the software used 
for storing and retrieving the data, and the communications facilities 
necessary to provide for data sharing. Within TUNS, the storage and retrieval 
mechanisms will be provided by the database management system selected for 
TUNS application development. The communications facilities will be provided 
through telecommunications and a local area network. 

2.2.1 DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS) 

The need for both central and local repositories of information is defined 
in the FRD. At the central site, the DBMS functional requirements are 
minimal. The DBMS must support multiple read-only (query) access, and binary 
file upload capability. At the local level, the FRD requires, for example, 
that contract information be available to personnel monitoring contracts and 
to personnel tracking the status of NTRs. In a large TU office, these 
functions may be performed by different individuals, hence a locally shared 
repository. The DBMS selected for use at the local level must provide two 
basic functions. 

o It must support the development of TUNS-specific applications 
software, including NTR tracking and contract administration. These 
applications form the core of the TUNS new technology capture 
function. The DBMS used to develop these applications is, therefore, 
of critical importance. 

o It must provide tools allowing end-users to develop their own 
applications. Such tools include a data entry screen generator, a 
report writer, and a DBMS query capability. The information 
contained within user-developed applications is, however, entirely 
dependent on the application, as are all possible needs for sharing 
the information. TUNS will support the inclusion of user-developed 
applications. 



2-3 



2.2.2 COMMUNICATIONS 

Information can be stored in a shared repository by providing connectivity 
between the PCs. Currently, the two most common forms of PC connectivity are 
LANs for local communications, and dial-up telecommunications via a modem to a 
shared repository (central minicomputer or mainframe computer). 

In order to provide all TUNS users with simultaneous access to common 
information, a local area network (LAN) is needed to connect workstations to 
the device on which the common information is stored. It is also necessary to 
provide the LAN software to manage the network. The LAN hardware and software 
combination must support the DBMS, allowing the DBMS to store and retrieve the 
common information. 

Telecommunications will be used within TUNS to provide access to both the 
central site and the electronic mail system. The communications hardware and 
software are the components which support the required telecommunications 
functionality. Technology has been sufficiently standardized; therefore, most 
off-the-shelf communications software is capable of supporting most PC 
software packages. 

The FRD specifies that TUNS must provide two kinds of information transfer 
through telecommunications: ASCII file transfer and binary file transfer. 
Both of these capabilities are currently available through off-the-shelf 
products. 

An electronic mail system is the additional form of connectivity that will 
be needed to meet the requirement for communications. The electronic mail 
capability will be provided by connecting PCs to a commercially-available 
electronic mail system, using the PC-based telecommunications hardware and 
software. 

2.3 TUNS TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS 

The TUNS technical requirements are those requirements which must be 
satisfied by the hardware and software components selected for inclusion 
within TUNS. These technical requirements are mandatory; any component which 



2-4 



does not meet them will not be considered as a potential candidate for 
incorporation into the system. 

As stated above, the most critical component of TUNS is the DBMS. The 
DBMS selected for TUNS application development must satisfy the following 
requirements. 

o A networked version must be available, providing for storage of 
shared DBMS files. 

o The networked version must provide some mechanism for handling record 
contention (to allow multiple users to access the same file 
simultaneously) . 

o There must be a high level programming language interface. 

o A compiler must be available for the programming language. 

o The programming language must be capable of initiating execution of 
other non-DBMS software programs (e.g., DOS commands and utilities, a 
spreadsheet package). 

o The programming language must support structured programming and 
subroutines. 

All of the technical requirements for the DBMS are of significant 
importance to the functionality of TUNS. Because TUNS is to be an integrated 
system, the software and hardware components must support the DBMS. In order 
to achieve this level of system integration, specific technical requirements 
for the remaining hardware and software components must be met: 

o The LAN network control software must support the application 
development DBMS. 

o The LAN hardware must support the application development DBMS and 
the LAN network control software. 



2-5 



o The LAN hardware/software combination must be capable of supporting 
from three to thirty users on the LAN simultaneously. 

o The communications hardware and software must be compatible with the 
workstations and, if shared through the LAN, with the LAN hardware 
and software. 

o The backup/archiving hardware and software must be capable of 
supporting the LAN environment, providing for backup of the locally 
shared TUNS-specific applications information. 

o The workstations must be capable of supporting both the LAN and the 
application development DBMS. 

o The word processor must be capable of supporting shared printers as 
well as local printers. It must also provide for transfers between 
ASCII files and document files. 

o The spreadsheet package must be capable of converting to/from file 
formats supported by the DBMS for import/export. It must also be 
capable of transferring information to the word processor. 

o The printers must be supported by the word processor and the 
spreadsheet packages. 

These technical requirements must be met in order to implement Phase I. 
During Phase II, the LAN hardware/software combination will be required to 
allow individuals to dial into the LAN in order to input data into TUNS. It 
will be necessary to analyze the additional hardware and software 
requirements, both for modems attached to the LAN and for workstations dialing 
into the LAN, prior to Phase II implementation. 



2-6 



2.4 TUNS CONCEPTUAL DESIGN 

TUNS will be a PC-based system, in order to capitalize on existing 
hardware and software within in the TU community. More specifically, TUNS 
will utilize IBM PC-compatible hardware, using either the MS-DOS or PC-DOS 
operating system. The selection of an IBM PC-compatible computer as the TUNS 
workstation constrains the technical design of the system in that all LAN 
hardware, LAN software, and off-the-shelf software must be IBM PC-compatible. 
Workstations which are not IBM PC-compatible may require additional hardware 
and/or software to interface directly with TUNS. 

The physical configuration of TUNS will consist of PCs serving as 
workstations on a LAN. Attached to the network will be the network file 
server with a shared hard disk, and shared letter quality and/or laser 
printers. Each workstation configuration will include a hard disk, a 
communications modem, and a dot-matrix printer. 

The software to be used within TUNS consists of off-the-shelf software 
packages, TUNS application software, and the LAN system software. The 
off-the-shelf packages for Phase I include word processing, spreadsheet, 
communications, database management and utility programs, and are addressed 
here. Off-the-shelf packages for Phase II will include graphics and project 
management software. These products will be evaluated prior to Phase II 
implementation. 

The TUNS software will reside on both the hard disk at the individual 
workstation and the shared hard disk on the LAN. In order to avoid needless 
system degradation, TUNS will use the workstation for those activities which 
do not require information from the shared data files. Information created in 
the local environment may be shared by uploading the file to the server or by 
transferring the data via floppy disk. Figure 2-1 provides a graphic 
representation of this conceptual system. 

The TUNS menu will provide access to the shared hard disk, and will also 
be used to select functions which reside on the local workstation. The 
following functions will be performed at the local workstation: 



2-7 



Word Processing The word processing software and related site 
specific data files will be stored on the local hard disk. Word 
processing operations will not require access to the network unless 
the output is routed to a shared printer or uploaded to the shared 
hard disk for access by another user. Since this configuration 
enables the user to do word processing locally, the number of 
workstations using word processing will not affect overall system 
performance. 

Spreadsheet The spreadsheet software and the related site specific 
data files will be stored on the local hard disk and again will not 
require accessing the network unless the user wishes to extract data 
from the shared data files and download it into the spreadsheet. 
With this configuration, the user will operate at the speed of the 
local PC and may perform extensive calculations on a large 
spreadsheet with no overall system degradation. 

Ori entati on/Trai ni nq The orientation and training software and data 
files will reside on the shared hard disk and will be downloaded for 
operation from the PC workstation. Using this configuration, the 
on-line training may be self-paced. The user may retain the files 
for use at a later date, restart from the initial database, and 
perform actual database activities in a controlled environment. 
Again, multiple users may be engaged in training without degradation 
of the network. 

Utilities The utility software such as desktop accessories, file 
backup, and communications will also reside on the local hard disk. 
Although these packages are selected from the TUNS menu, they perform 
a single user function such as individual calendars, notepads, 
telecommunications access, and file backup. The availability of the 
utilities on the local level allows the individual to define an 
environment suitable to the end-user's method of working. The site's 
office calendar will be maintained on the shared hard disk. 



2-8 



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2-9 



TUNS Application Software TUNS application software will be resident 
on both the local workstation and the shared hard disk. The portion 
of TUNS residing on the local workstation will include the software 
necessary to provide the applications described above with the 
exception of the database tutorial. However, data for the database 
training will be resident on the local hard disk. Access to those 
portions of TUNS such as New Technology Administration and 
Management, Technical Abstracts and Inquiries, Space Benefits 
Information, and IAC Administration and Management will be through 
the portion of TUNS that resides on the shared hard disk. Hhen the 
user initially enters the TUNS system, his authenticity will be 
validated through the shared hard disk, and a status check will 
ensure the software residing on the local station is the current 
version. The user will then be returned to local mode until he 
selects an activity which requires accessing the network for 
information. The primary purpose of this configuration is to keep 
the network traffic at a minimum level while safeguarding both the 
data and the user activity. 

Operating System The workstation operating system will remain at the 
local level in order to allow the user the ability to go to the 
operating system to perform activities not specifically related to 
TUNS. 

Site-specific Databases The databases designed by each site will 
reside on the local workstations; however, the system administrator 
can create an access path to place them on the shared hard disk for 
community access. Any databases placed on the shared hard disk will 
be the responsibility of the user to maintain and will require that 
the system administrator create or modify menus in order to be 
accessible through TUNS. 



2-10 



The TUNS activity is divided between the local workstation and the shared 
hard disk. This division will be transparent to the end-user. TUNS will 
execute the necessary command files to access the network when a function 
requires data from the shared hard disk. The division of TUNS into local and 
network functions will ensure the overall responsiveness of the system as the 
number of users and the amount of data increase over time. The ability to 
restrict the user when in a training environment will reduce the risk of 
inadvertent loss of data and will reduce any system degradation resulting from 
training of novice users. TUNS will include safeguards to ensure that the 
local stations are operating with the latest version of the software installed 
on the shared hard disk. To simplify system maintenance, updates to TUNS may 
be installed on only the shared hard disk by the system administrator and will 
be automatically downloaded when the user next enters the system. This 
permits control of the TUNS software even though the software is resident on 
multiple workstations within the network. 



2-11 



SECTION 3.0 
SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS 



As a result of the analysis of the software and hardware for TUNS usage, 
the following components are recommended as those best suited for inclusion in 
TUNS. Figure 3-1 shows a typical twelve-user, fully-configured LAN. 

LOCAL AREA NETWORKS 

o The Novell Advanced NetWare/286 is the LAN software which offers the 
versatility necessary to provide an integrated system which will 
incorporate the variety of existing PC's currently in use at the NASA 
TU sites. The GSA cost is $1,932 per site. 

o The 3Com Etherlink card is recommended for each workstation and the 
Etherlink Plus card for the file server. The recommended LAN 
hardware is thin 50-ohm coaxial cable (RG-58Cu) with bus topology 
that uses the carrier-sense multiple access method with collision 
detection (CSMA/CD). The GSA cost of each Etherlink card is $451; 
the Plus card costs approximately $651. The cost of thin 50-ohm 
coaxial cable and taps is approximately $3 per foot installed. 

o The file server recommended for the LAN is determined by the estimated 
number of users on the network and the shared disk space requirements. 
A small LAN (5 workstations) should use a Compaq DeskPro 286-40 as 
file server; a medium LAN (12 workstations) should use a Compaq 
DeskPro 386 with a 70 Mb hard disk; and a large LAN (30 users) should 
use a Novell T286B with 183 Mb of hard disk as the file server. The 
T286B includes a tape backup unit and Advanced NetWare/286. The hard 
disk sizes recommended provide a minimum of 20 Mb of storage for 
future growth. 

The following are the estimated GSA costs for the file servers, 
including the network interface cards: 

Compaq DeskPro 286-40 as 40 Mb file server $ 4,738 
Compaq DeskPro 386-70 as 70 Mb file server $ 6,387 
Novell T286B with 183 Mb and tape backup $20,060 

3-1 




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The tape backup unit recommended for the file server is the Emerald 
LAN-9100. It offers a 60 Mb tape cartridge with backup software 
which is fast, reliable, and provides a variety of backup 
methodologies. The estimated government price is $1,995. 



HARDWARE 



The recommended workstation for TUNS is the Compaq DeskPro 286 with a 
40 Mb hard disk. While other brands of workstations may be used 
within TUNS, the DeskPro 286 offers the best combination of speed, 
dependability, and compatibility. These workstations should be 
configured with an EGA card, a high resolution color monitor, and 
expanded memory up to 640K. The estimated GSA cost, including an EGA 
card and color monitor, is $4,087. 

The recommended dot-matrix printer is the Epson FX-286e with a GSA 
cost of $527. The recommended letter-quality printer is a Diablo 
D80IF, having a GSA cost of $1,523. The recommended laser printer is 
the Hewlett-Packard Laserjet Series II. The estimated Government 
price is $1 ,795. 

The internal communications modem which offers the best alternative 

for TUNS is the Hayes Smartmodem 2400, costing $579 at the GSA 

price. It is the industry standard and operates at baud rates up to 
2400. 



SOFTWARE 



Unify Verson 3.2 is the recommended DBMS for both the development and 
operational phases of TUNS. Unify is a powerful, mature DBMS which 
operates in a PC, mini, and mainframe environment. It operates under 
the NetWare 286 network operating system. The government cost for 
Unify is: 

8-user LAN $2,237/site or $280/user 

16-user LAN $4,337/site or $271/user 

32-user LAN $8,697/site or $262/user 



3-3 



o Lotus 1-2-3 Version 2.01 is the recommended spreadsheet package, with 
a GSA cost of $305. It offers a full range of spreadsheet functions 
at a speed which exceeds that of other packages available on the 
market. 

o WordPerfect Version 4.2 is the word processor of choice. This 
product offers a full range of word processing features in a package 
which is easy to learn, easy to use, and state-of-the-art. The GSA 
cost is $173. 

o Back-It, which costs $80, is the software selected as the workstation 
backup software. It is menu-driven offering a range of backup 
options. 

o HyperAccess is the communications software of choice. The package is 
moderately priced at $92 (GSA price), yet it offers the 
communications protocols required for both Phase I and Phase II of 
TUNS. It is a versatile package suitable for both the experienced 
and novice communications user. 

o Several utility packages are recommended for TUNS use. These include 
Sidekick for creating calendars, notepads, and other desktop 
features; Norton Utilities for use by the system administrator in 
order to recover user files; Sideways to aid in the printing of large 
spreadsheets; ScreenSave to protect the life of the monitors; 
KeyBuffer to allow the user to enter characters from the keyboard at 
a faster rate than acceptable under DOS; and FilePath to aid in the 
use of multiple directories and sub-directories. The total estimated 
cost is less than $300. 



3-4 



The estimated GSA cost of each fully-configured TUNS workstation 
(excluding workstations also used as file servers), is $6,874. The cost is 
based on the following components: 

Compaq DeskPro 286-40 with EGA card $ 4,087 



and color monitor 






Epson FX-286e dot matrix 


printer 


527 


Hayes Smartmodem 2400 




579 


3Com Etherlink card 




451 


Unify 




280 


Lotus 1-2-3 




305 


WordPerfect 




173 


HyperAccess 




92 


Back-It 




80 


Miscellaneous utilties 




300 


Total 




$ 6,874 



The estimated GSA cost for a five-user LAN, excluding the workstations but 
including a dedicated file server, one daisy-wheel printer, and a tape backup 
unit is $10,488, based on the following components: 

Compaq DeskPro 286-40 as 40 Mb file server $ 4,738 

Diablo D80IF daisy-wheel printer 1,523 

Emerald LAN-9100 tape backup unit 1,995 

Advanced NetWare/286 1,932 

Installed cable, 100' 8$3/ft. 300 

Total $10,488 



3-5 



The estimated maximum GSA cost for a twelve-user LAN, including a 
dedicated file server, one daisy-wheel printer, one laser printer, and a tape 
backup unit is $14,382, based on the components listed below. Individual 
sites, based on a site survey may elect to have only one printer. 

Compaq DeskPro 386-70 as 70 Mb file server $ 6,387 

Diablo D80IF daisy-wheel printer 1,523 

H-P Laserjet Series II laser printer 1,795 

Emerald LAN-9100 tape backup unit 1,995 

Advanced NetHare/286 1,932 

Installed cable, 250' §$3/ft. 750 

Total $14,382 

The estimated GSA cost for a thirty-user LAN, including a dedicated file 
server with tape backup unit, two daisy-wheel printers, and two laser printers 
is $28,496, based on the following components: 

Novell T286B file server $20,060 

2 Diablo D80IF daisy-wheel printers 3,046 

2 H-P Laserjet Series II laser printers 3,590 

Installed cable, 600' 8$3/ft. 1.800 

Total $28,496 

The following table summarizes the total cost of purchasing the 
recommended hardware and software for a five-user, twelve-user, and 
thirty-user LAN, assuming that no existing equipment or cabling is used. 





5-USER 
LAN 


12-USER 
LAN 


30-USER 
LAN 


Cost of workstations 

Cost of file servers, printers, 

and tape backup units 

Total cost of network 


$34,370 

1Q.488 
$44,858 


$82,488 

14.382 
$96,870 


$206,220 

28.496 
$234,716 


Per workstation cost 


$ 8,972 


$ 8,072 


$ 7,823 



TABLE 3-1 : ESTIMATED COSTS OF CONFIGURED LANS 



3-6 



SECTION 4.0 
HARDWARE RECOMMENDATIONS 



In this section, a recommended specification is given for each TUNS 
hardware device. The reasons for the recommendation are discussed and 
alternative recommendations are provided when the substitution of the 
alternative does not compromise the functionality of the TUNS system as a 
whole. 

4.1 WORKSTATIONS 

As stated previously, TUNS is a PC-based system. An IBM PC-compatible 
microcomputer serves as the workstation for the system. 

4.1.1 RECOMMENDED WORKSTATION SPECIFICATIONS 

The recommended workstation configuration is an IBM AT-compatible PC with 
the following: 

o Intel 80286 CPU and 16-bit bus 

o 8 MHz or higher clock speed 

o 16-bit hard disk controller 

o 640 Kb RAM 

o 1 parallel port 

o 1 serial port 

o 2 empty slots for 16-bit boards (after EGA, network interface and 

internal modem cards have been installed) 

o 1 EGA card (640 x 350 resolution) 

o 1 medium/high resolution color monitor (640 x 350 pixels resolution) 

o 1 AT-style keyboard 

o 1 high-capacity 5 1/4" floppy disk drive 

o 1 40 Mb hard disk drive 



4-1 



4.1.2 RATIONALE 

The Intel 80286 CPU, the 16-bit bus, the 12 MHz clock speed, and the 
16-bit hard disk controller are recommended in order to ensure acceptable 
workstation performance in the TUNS environment. This hardware impacts both 
the overall workstation processing capability and the hard disk access time. 
The bulk of the TUNS office automation capabilities (as distinguished from the 
TUNS-specific applications) will be implemented using the workstation's hard 
disk drive; enhanced hard disk performance at the local workstation will 
increase user productivity and satisfaction. 

The database management system recommended for the TUNS-specific 
applications will require 640 Kb of RAM memory. 

The parallel and serial ports are recommended for attaching printers (both 
parallel and serial), as well as other asynchronous devices (e.g., external 
communications devices). The availability of both ports will provide 
significant flexibility in system configuration during Phase II of the TUNS 
implementation, as will the recommended empty slots. 

The empty slots will be available for future expansion (such as adding a 
local tape backup unit or a special-purpose telecommunications interface card). 

An EGA card and color monitor are recommended. The inclusion of project 
management software and graphics in TUNS Phase II will require the higher 
resolution and color capabilities provided by this hardware. 

The high-capacity 5 1/4" floppy disk drive is recommended both for local 
backup and for transfer of floppy disk based software and data. The 
recommended AT-compatible floppy disk drive is capable of storing 1.2 Mb of 
data on a single high-density floppy disk; it is also capable of reading and 
writing standard 360 Kb XT-compatible floppy disks. The high capacity option 
will be used for local backups. The XT-compatible option will be used for 
software and data transfer, as most PC-compatible software is distributed on 
standard 360 Kb 5 1/4" floppies. 



4-2 



The hard disk is recommended as the primary storage medium for the local 
workstation. The conceptual design uses the local workstation hard disk for 
storage of both software and non-shared data. The following table shows the 
minimum expected storage required of the hard disk at each workstation during 
Phase I. These estimates are based on information obtained from the TUNS 
Project Manager and the TUNS User Working Group. 



SOFTWARE/DATA 

Operating system software 
Utility/miscellaneous software 
Communications software 
Backup software 

Word processing software 
Spreadsheet software 

TUNS application software 
Temporary work files 
Orientation/training software/data 

Word processing data 
Spreadsheet data 
Site-specific DBMS data 
TOTAL 



MB 


REOUIRED 




.7 




.5 




.3 




.1 




1.1 




1.5 




.5 




.5 




5.0 




5.0 




1.5 




2.0 




18.7 



TABLE 4-1 : WORKSTATION DISK REQUIREMENTS 

This does not represent all of the hard disk space required even during 
Phase I. For example, IACs will require the SortAid software during Phase I, 
as well as sufficient space for downloading citations resulting from 
bibliographic searches. During Phase II, additional software will be added at 
each workstation, including project management and graphics software. The 40 
Mb hard disk is recommended in order to ensure sufficient hard disk capacity 
through Phase II. 

4.1.3 ALTERNATIVES 

AT-compatible workstations are manufactured by many companies and sold by 
a wide variety of vendors. It is recommended that the workstations be "name 
brands," rather than those carrying the label of an unknown manufacturer. The 



4-3 



"name brand" workstations are more likely to be fully IBM AT-compatible. 
Although many vendors claim to sell "AT clones," ISN has occasionally found 
very subtle differences in the performance of these "clones," which may result 
in problems during system integration. Because TUNS will require sophisticated 
system integration, it is essential that the workstations be truly IBM 
AT-compatible. A high degree of confidence in the compatibility is required. 

When purchasing the workstations, NASA TU sites should evaluate the 
hardware warranty terms, the installation support, and the availability of 
vendor-provided maintenance. Because different vendors market the same 
equipment, the terms and support may vary from vendor to vendor. 

ISN surveyed seven vendors of AT-compatible and 386 PCs, asking for 
information" about specific machines (AT&T PC 6300 Plus, IBM AT, Compaq DeskPro 
286/386, Zenith 248, Kaypro 286/386). The survey results are detailed in 
Appendix A. The AT&T PC 6300 Plus was excluded from further consideration 
because of the 8-bit hard disk controller and the possibility of 
incompatibility of the 16-bit expansion slots with the IBM AT. The following 
table summarizes the cost information obtained from the survey. 



EC 




DISK 
SIZE 


AVERAGE 
GSA PRICE 


Compaq 286-40 
IBM AT 
Kaypro 286 
Zenith 248 




40 Mb 
30 Mb 
40 Mb 
40 Mb 


$ 3,095 
$ 4,400 
$ 2,901 * 
$ 3,248 


Compaq 386-40 
Kaypro 386 




40 Mb 
20 Mb 


$ 4,224 
$ 5,770 ** 


* Not on GSA 
** Not on GSA 


schedule; Insuffi 
schedule 


cient empty slots 



TABLE 4-2: WORKSTATION PRICES 

Specifically, ISN recommends that NASA TU sites standardize the Compaq 
DeskPro 286-40 as the TUNS workstation. The DeskPro 286 will provide the 
required AT-compatibility at a cost lower than the AT, and it will provide a 
better disk performance than the IBM AT (see Software Digest Ratings Letter. 
Special Hardware Report . 1986). 

4-4 



The cost estimate for the recommended workstations is based on the cost of 
a Compaq 286-40. Using previously obtained price estimates for an EGA card 
and medium/high resolution color monitor, the estimated workstation cost is: 

Compaq 286-40 $ 3,095 

EGA card 425 

Color monitor 567 

$ 4,087 

Although the recommended workstation is an AT-compatible, it will be 
possible to use existing IBM XT-compatible machines as TUNS workstations. 
However, the performance will be degraded due to the CPU chip, the 8-bit bus, 
the slower clock, and the 8-bit disk controller. While existing XT-compatible 
or PC-compatible machines can be used, the machines must be upgraded to meet 
the requirements of 640 Kb of memory and a minimum of 20 Mb of hard disk space. 

The use as a workstation of one of the newer 386 machines (based on the 
Intel 80386 CPU chip) is not currently recommended. The power provided by the 
386 system is more than that required of the workstation. If sites procure 
386 systems, ISN recommends that the systems contain a minimum of one unused 
32-bit slot for future upgrade purposes (specifically, for future 32-bit disk 
controllers). 

4.2 PRINTERS 

TUNS will require printers for both reports and correspondence. Both the 
numbers and the types of printers will vary from site to site, depending on 
the site size and activity. 

4.2.1 RECOMMENDED PRINTER SPECIFICATIONS 

Recommended specifications are provided for three types of printers: 
dot-matrix (suitable for reports and drafts), daisy-wheel (for letter-quality 
correspondence), and laser (for high-speed letter-quality correspondence) 
printers. 



4-5 



Recommended dot-matrix printer specifications: 
Printer characteristics 
o bidirectional printing 
o graphics capability 
o 9-pin minimum dot matrix 
o at least 120 cps print speed in normal mode 
o tractor feed capable of handling 14 7/8 inch paper 
o at least a 2 Kb print buffer within the printer itself 

Printer control characteristics 
o Epson compatible or IBM compatible 
o printing features - underline, bold, super/subscripts, expanded, 

compressed, horizontal and vertical tabs 
o variable page lengths 

Recommended daisy-wheel printer specifications: 
Printer characteristics 
o bidirectional printing 
o at least 40 cps print speed 

o at least a 2 Kb print buffer within the printer itself 
o capability for both tractor feed and cut-sheet feeder 

Printer control characteristics 
o IBM or Diablo compatible 
o printing features - underline, bold, super/subscripts, expanded, 

compressed, horizontal and vertical tabs 
o variable page lengths 

Recommended laser printer specifications: 
Printer characteristics 
o up to 8 forms per page 
o at least 8 pages per minute 
o print resolution 300x300 dots per inch 
o graphics capability 
o at least a 2 Kb print buffer within the printer itself 



4-6 



Printer control characteristics 

o printing features - underline, bold, super/subscripts, expanded, 
compressed, horizontal and vertical tabs 

4.2.2 RATIONALE 

In determining the standards for TUNS-supported printers, several factors 
must be taken into consideration: 

o Hhat will the printer be used for? 

o Does the printer have the required capabilities? 

o Is the printer supported by the software? 

o Is the printer cost-beneficial? 

The dot-matrix printers will be used for drafts of letters and documents, 
graphics, spreadsheet printing, and reports from the TUNS-specific 
applications software. The specific printing features are recommended to 
support printing of drafts of documents. The graphics capability and 9-pin 
dot matrix are recommended for dot-matrix graphics. The wide carriage width, 
handling 14 7/8" paper, is recommended for printing large spreadsheets. 
Bidirectional printing and 120 cps normal mode speed are recommended to 
minimize the time the user must wait for reports to be printed. The 2 Kb 
print buffer is recommended in order to reduce the impact of the printer on 
CPU processing (i.e., to minimize the extent to which the inherent slowness of 
the printer degrades the CPU performance). 

Because the capabilities of a printer are directly related to the ability 
of the software to send the correct control codes, ISN recommends that NASA 
standardize on a specified control code set for use with all TUNS dot-matrix 
printers. Because of the wide-spread implementation of the Epson control 
codes, ISN recommends that all dot-matrix printers be Epson-compatible. 

The daisy-wheel printers will be used primarily for correspondence, and 
reproduction quality reports and documents, produced by the word processing 
software. Because daisy-wheel printers are fairly slow, the time required for 
a document to be printed can be significant. In order to minimize the impact 
of slow printing, ISN recommends a minimum print speed of 40 cps, bidirectional 



4-7 



printing, and a 2 Kb internal printer buffer. The availability of both 
tractor feed and cut-sheet feed is recommended to increase the flexibility of 
the printer. The printing features (e.g., boldface, superscripts) are 
required in order to produce reproduction quality (camera-ready) documents. 

A commonly used control code set for letter quality printers is the Diablo 
control codes. Because most word processing packages support the Diablo 
control codes, ISN recommends this as the TUNS standard. 

Sites with significant office automation requirements, particularly sites 
with many users, will benefit from the use of laser printers. These printers 
provide very high quality text and graphics. In addition, laser printers are 
much faster than most daisy-wheel printers. Although Hewlett-Packard has been 
the industry leader in moderately-priced laser printers, within the last year 
many new laser printers have been released by competing vendors. The basis of 
the competition is primarily price and control code set compatibility. Many 
of the competitors provide H-P Laserjet compatibility, as well as some form of 
IBM or Epson graphics compatibility. 

4.2.3 ALTERNATIVES 

With the wide range of printers available, ISN recommends that NASA 
evaluate the following factors in procuring printers: hardware warranties, 
installation support and training for laser printers, the availability of 
vendor-provided maintenance, the availability and ease of installing ribbons 
or cartridges, and compatibility with the TUNS software. 

After selecting a variety of printers based on a literature search, ISN 
compared the cost per speed for each printer. Because of the competition in 
the PC printer market, it is difficult to determine the price of a particular 
model. In an attempt to standardize the price and speed comparisons, ISN used 
both a vendor survey and a printer survey conducted by PC Magazine , published 
in November, 1986. The results of the ISN analysis are summarized in Appendix 
B. In estimating the cost per cps, standard commercial prices and rated 
printer speeds were used. 



4-8 



Two printers, the Brother Twinwriter 5 and the Fortis DH-45, include both 
dot-matrix and daisy-wheel print mechanisms. The two companies are actually 
marketing the same printer under different labels. Although this printer was 
initially viewed as an exciting combination of functionality at a reasonable 
price, it was excluded from further consideration after the Twinwriter 5 
vendor reported extremely poor reliability and great customer dissatisfaction. 

Five wide-carriage (15.5 inches or wider) dot-matrix printers were 
considered. The three representing the best speed for the price are the C. 
Itoh C-315XP, the Okidata Microline 193 Plus, and the Epson FX-286e. The 
recommended dot-matrix printer for TUNS is the Epson FX-286e. It is the most 
cost effective and is the industry standard. Because of Epson's dominance in 
the dot-matrix printer market, Epson printers are the most widely available, 
particularly in non-metropolitan areas. In addition, the Epson printer meets 
the recommended specifications. For estimating dot-matrix printer costs, the 
Epson FX-286e GSA price of $527 will be used. The following table gives' the 
cost per speed figures used for comparison. 



PRINTER 

C.Itoh C-315XP 
Okidata 193 Plus 
Epson FX-286e 
Okidata 293 
Epson LQ-1000 



PRINTER 

C.Itoh C-315XP 
Okidata 193 Plus 
Epson FX-286e 



RATED 
_£ES 

300 
200 
220 
200 
180 



RATED 
_CfS 

300 
200 
220 



COMMERCIAL 
PRICE 



$ 


819 


$ 


749 


$ 


799 


$ 


899 


$1 


,095 


GOVERNMENT 




PRICE 


$ 


690 


$ 


590 


$ 


527 



PRICE/ 
CPS 

$2,730 
$3,745 
$3,632 
$4,495 
$6,083 



PRICE/ 
CPS 

$2,300 
$2,545 
$2,395 



TABLE 4-3: DOT-MATRIX PRINTERS 



4-9 



The recommended alternative to the Epson printer is the C.Itoh C-315XP. 
The more expensive C.Itoh provides higher quality graphics and text than the 
Epson and Okidata models, according to print samples in PC Magazine's November 
11, 1986 issue. Support for the C.Itoh is not as universally available, 
however. Each TUNS site will need to determine the local availability of, and 
maintenance for, that site's hardware. 

Six daisy-wheel printers were considered. Although the Qume Letter Pro 
Plus represents the best speed for the price, the carriage width is only 
twelve inches. The Diablo D80IF provides not only a good price/speed ratio, 
but also a 15.25 inch carriage, permitting the printing of wide spreadsheets 
for subsequent reduction and inclusion in reports and letters. For estimating 
letter-quality printer costs, the Diablo D80IF government price of $1,523 will 
be used. The following table gives the cost per speed figures used for 
comparison. 





RATED 


COMMERCIAL 


PRICE/ 


PRINTER 


CPS 


PRICE 


CPS 


Qume Letter Pro Plus 


45 


$ 899 


$19,978 


Diablo D80IF 


80 


$1,650 


$20,625 


Diablo 635 


55 


$1,149 


$20,891 


Brother HR-35 


33 


$ 780 


$23,636 


NEC 3515 


32 


$ 865 


$27,031 


Olympia ESW 1000 


14 


$ 549 


$39,214 



TABLE 4-4: DAISY-WHEEL PRINTERS 

Five laser printers were considered, two of which were Hewlett-Packard 
printers. Of the five, ISN recommends the Hewlett-Packard Laserjet Series 
II. The two printers with the lowest cost per rated print speed are the QMS 
Kiss and the H-P Laserjet Series II, as shown in the following table. The 
government price quoted for both printers is $1,795. The cost of supplies per 
page for the H-P and the QMS Kiss is approximately equal. Two factors 
resulted in the recommendation of the H-P. First, the H-P has a bin size 
capacity of 200 sheets of paper. Many other printers have capacities of 50-80 
sheets. Second, the H-P is commonly available, and support for this printer 
is widespread. For estimating laser printer costs, the government price of 
$1,795 will be used. 



4-10 



PRINTER 


RATED 
PER 


PGS 
MIN 


COMMERCIAL 
PRICE 


PRICE/ 
PPM 


SUPPLIES/ 
PAGE 


QMS Kiss 
Laserjet II 
Laserline 6 
Blaser 
Laserjet 500+ 


8 
8 
6 
8 
8 




$1,995 
$2,495 
$1,995 
$2,795 
$4,995 


$249.38 
$311.88 
$332.50 
$349.38 
$624.38 


$ .033 
$ .030 
$ .039 



TABLE 4-5: LASER PRINTERS 
4.3 COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES 
4.3.1 RECOMMENDED COMMUNICATIONS DEVICE SPECIFICATIONS 

To provide dial-up asynchronous communications capabilities needed for 
electronic mail and for accessing the central site, the following 
specifications are recommended for the communications hardware in each 
workstation: 

o internal modem on a card 

o Hayes-compatible control codes 

o 300, 1200 and 2400 baud rates 

o half-duplex and full-duplex 

o asynchronous and synchronous transmission 

o automatic speed recognition 

o pulse and tone dialing 

o volume-controlled speaker 

o jacks for both data and voice calls 

o auto-dial and auto-answer 

4.3.2 RATIONALE 

The asynchronous communications capabilities of an AT-compatible PC are 
more dependent on the communications software than on the hardware. Hayes 
compatibility is a recognized industry standard, supported by virtually every 
asynchronous communications package. 



4-11 



ISN recommends a 300/1200/2400 baud (selectable) internal modem in each 
workstation to handle access to electronic mail and eventually to access the 
central site, when implemented. For ease of use, ISN recommends an internal 
modem with automatic line speed recognition, the ability to handle both pulse 
and tone dialing, automatic dialing, and a speaker to enable users to readily 
determine any dialing or connection problems. In addition, the jacks for both 
data and voice will ensure that the telephone wires do not have to be plugged 
and unplugged frequently. The auto-answer capability will prove beneficial 
for system integration during Phase II, when TUNS-specific applications 
information will be transferred between the sites and the central facility. 

4.3.3 ALTERNATIVES 

ISN reviewed seven modems to determine the capabilities and features. The 
results of the survey are presented 1n Appendix C. All of the modems support 
300, 1200, and 2400 baud rates, both asynchronous and synchronous 
transmission, and both half-duplex and full-duplex modes. All are Hayes 
compatible. The results are summarized in the following table. 







GSA 


MODEM 




COST 


Anderson Jacobsen AJ Connection II 




$520 


Hayes Smartmodem 2400 




$579 


Incomm Turbo 2400 




$315 


Link Computer SM-24PC 




$230* 


Microcom AX/2400 




$595 


Multi-Tech MultiModem 224PC 




$426 


Paradyne FDX 2400 




$396 


* Not on GSA schedule; price reflects 


government 


discount 



TABLE 4-6: MODEMS 



ISN recommends the Hayes Smartmodem 2400 for inclusion in TUNS. Of the 
modems surveyed, the lowest cost modem was the Incomm Turbo 2400. However, 
further investigation indicates that local user support for this product could 
be unsatisfactory. Given the low recognition factor in the industry of most 
Hayes-compatible modems, ISN recommends the Hayes as the best choice. The 

4-12 



individual sites, depending on the support available in their area, may elect 
to choose one of the compatibles. The GSA cost of $579 will be used for the 
estimated modem cost. 

ISN does not recommend installation of 9600 baud modems at this point. 
The lack of standard protocols, error-correction methods and data compression 
techniques for 9600 baud communications means that two modems from different 
vendors will rarely communicate with each other at 9600 baud. Until standards 
are well-established and the host computers support the standards, ISN does 
not recommend purchasing 9600 baud modems. 

4.4 ARCHIVING AND BACKUP DFVTfFS 

The term archiving, as used in this report, is defined as the transfer of 
a logically-related set of information to a medium and/or device for long-term 
storage. For example, when a contract is closed out, all the contract 
information will be removed from the active data files as immediate access is 
no longer required. The information will not be deleted; instead, it will be 
saved as archived data. When this process is performed, it will be necessary 
to archive not only the contract data itself, but also other related data such 
as the correspondence history and NTRs reported under that contract. This 
means that several different kinds of data need to be written to the archive 
medium or device, based solely on the data being related in some way to that 
contract. This also means that the relationships of the individual records 
must be preserved in order to allow the restoration of the data should 
questions about the contract require it. Archiving is generally performed 
using custom application software because of the need to preserve such 
relationships. 

The term backup, as used here, is the process of making a copy of complete 
files or sets of files in order to protect the data from loss or damage. In 
the event of disk failure, destruction of files, or inability to access files, 
information from the backup copies can be restored to the disk. The loss of 
data is limited to the transactions which were entered into the file after the 
backup copy was created. Routine backups are normally used for protection 
against computer system failure or user error. Periodic backups, typically 
corresponding to data for a month, quarter, or year, may be retained for 



4-13 



historical purposes or for recovery in the event of catastrophic failures. 
Backups may be made by a single file or by backing up an entire device such as 
a hard disk. 

4.4.1 RECOMMENDED ARCHIVING AND BACKUP DEVICE SPECIFICATIONS 

ISN recommends that all archiving of TUNS-specific data be accomplished 
using high-capacity (1.2 Mb) floppy disks. Since each workstation will have 
at least one high-capacity floppy disk drive, no additional specifications are 
necessary for archiving hardware. ISN also recommends that workstation backup 
be accomplished using high-capacity floppy disks. 

The following specifications are recommended for tape backup devices used 
with the file servers: 

o AT compatible 

o capable of being installed on the LAN file server 

o minimum capacity of 60 Mb per tape 

o minimum data transfer rate of 80 Kb per second 

o software must be provided 

o software capabilities must include: 

menu driven 

backup selection by file, by directory (including 
subdirectories), or entire disk 

backup selection by date/time last modified 

restore all files on tape or by directory or file-by-file 

restore based on date/time last modified 

4.4.2 RATIONALE 

Archiving to floppy disk is recommended for two reasons. First, the 
expected volume of data to be archived at any one time is small. Second, the 
custom software for archiving and restoration will execute faster using the 
random access provided on floppy disks. Use of random access methods will 
facilitate preserving the relationships between the archived data. 

Backup onto floppy disks is recommended for the local workstations for two 
reasons. First, only selective backup of data is required. Software, 
training data, and shared databases will be backed up from the file server. 

4-14 



Second, if selective backups are performed regularly (preferably daily), the 
volume will be small. Only word processing documents, spreadsheets, and 
site-specific databases, modified by the user since the last backup, will 
require backing up at the local workstation. The end-users will be 
responsible for backing up the workstation hard disks. 

The recommended backup method for the LAN shared hard disk is to use a 
tape backup unit. The entire disk will be backed up on a regularly scheduled 
basis by the system administrator, during hours when the network is not in use. 

The recommended tape drive specifications require AT compatibility in 
order to ensure that the tape unit and software will indeed be able to back up 
the shared hard disk. The recommended tape capacity is 60 Mb to minimize the 
need for changing tapes in the middle of the backup. The 80 Kb per second 
minimum transfer speed is recommended to ensure that tape backups are 
accomplished within a reasonable time. At 80 Kb per second, the theoretical 
times for backing up various volumes of data are: 

40 Mb of data 8.3 min 

60 Mb of data 12.5 min 

80 Mb of data 16.7 min 

120 Mb of data 25.0 min 

160 Mb of data 33.3 min 

Actual performance will be slower than the theoretical times, primarily 
due to the type of backup (entire disk versus file-by-file) and the efficiency 
of the backup software. 

The software used with the tape unit must be provided by the vendor. 
Currently, there are no standard technical specifications for interfacing tape 
units with either MS-DOS or the AT-compatible architecture. As a result, 
there is no generic tape backup software for AT-compatible machines; rather, 
vendors provide software for their specific hardware interface. 



4-15 



4.4.3 ALTERNATIVES 

ISN reviewed nine different tape systems to determine the most suitable 
backup devices. The detailed results are presented in Appendix D. The 
results are summarized in the following table. Costs are included only for 
those tape units which are AT-compatible and can be installed under Novell 
Advanced NetWare/286, the recommended LAN software. 











MAX TFR 








NETWARE/286 


RATE GSA 


TAPE UNIT 




TYPE 


COMPATIBLE 


Kb/SEC COST 


Alloy FT-60 




cartridge 


No 


1.5 


Alloy PC-9 Track 




reel 


No 


58 


Emerald LAN-2200 




cartridge 


No 


90 


Emerald LAN-9100 




cartridge 


Yes 


90 $1,496 


Genoa Galaxy 




cartridge 


Yes 


86 $1,025 


Sysgen Smart QIC-FILE 


cartridge 


* 


IK 


Tall grass 4060 




cartridge 


Yes 


94K $1,356 


Tech PC 10-12 




reel 


No 


125 inches/second 


Tecmar QIC-60H 




cartridge 


** 


2.5 


* Unreliable 


under Novell Advanced NetWare/286 


** Tapes must 


be 


formatted before each use 





TABLE 4-7: TAPE BACKUP UNITS 



ISN recommends the Emerald LAN-9100 External Tape Backup Subsystem for 
NetHare LANs. This system is a 15-track serpentine cartridge tape with a 60 
Mb formatted capacity. It is well suited for use in the TUNS environment as 
the backup system for IBM AT and Compaq Deskpro 286 file servers running 
Novell Advanced NetWare/286 network software. For TUNS sites using other PCs 
as file servers, Emerald offers a DOS backup subsystem which will also 



4-16 



function in the Novell environment. The speed of the backup process is 2.5 Mb 
to 3 Mb per minute when the backup is performed on a file-by-file basis. 
Therefore, the LAN-9100 can backup a 60 Mb fixed disk in approximately 24 
minutes. This system requires a 256 Kb of memory and one expansion slot. 

The Archival Storage Protector (ASP) software provided by Emerald for the 
LAN-9100 Tape Backup Subsystem includes the following features of significance 
to TUNS: 

o ASP is menu-driven with a Lotus-like interface displaying the real 
time status of the backup. 

o ASP is capable of using multiple tapes in the backup process and will 
append data from different backup sessions until total tape capacity 
is reached. 

o ASP is able to provide on-line backup of the network file server 

while other users are on the system. Therefore, it is not necessary 

to shut the system down in order to accomplish system administrator 
functions. 

o ASP is capable of maintaining system security and directory data by 
backing up all information associated with a file rather than only 
the file Itself. The backup process includes the ability to capture 
read-only files, hidden system files, network security files, as well 
as sharable files. 

The Emerald LAN-9100 Tape Backup Subsystem has been tested and approved 
for use in a Novell-286 network. It provides a reliable, fast, and versatile 
system for the protection of data. 

The alternative tape backup system recommended by ISN is the Genoa Systems 
Corporation's Genoa Galaxy. The Galaxy system includes software which will 
perform backups by two methods: file-by-file and image. The image backup 
itiethod is a backup of the complete disk. In order to use the Galaxy system in 
a Novell 286 environment, a software package called GENWARE must be 
purchased. This package is used to copy hidden files from the hard disk, and 
its use is critical when backing up under the image option in order to 
maintain the file and directory integrity. 

4-17 



SECTION 5.0 
LOCAL AREA NETHORK RECOMMENDATIONS 



Because sharing of information is critical to the achievement of the goals 
of TUNS, the local area network (LAN) is critical to the successful 
functioning of the system. An overview of LAN technology is provided to 
describe the available options. Specific LAN hardware and software 
recommendations are made based on the functional and technical requirements of 
TUNS. 

5.1 LAN OVERVIEW 

As discussed in Section 2.1.3, TUNS users within a Center, IAC, or STAC, 
need to share a significant amount of TUNS-specific information (e.g., 
contractor information, contract data, NTR tracking information). For those 
organizations that have a need to share common information, a LAN will be 
required. 

In the PC environment, LANs are used to expand the capabilities of single 
workstations by sharing resources. The two kinds of hardware devices most 
often shared are hard disks and printers, although other resources (such as 
communications equipment) can be shared. Printers are shared in order to 
decrease the cost of less frequently used devices while still making them 
available to all users. Hard disks, however, are rarely shared in order to 
decrease cost. Usually, hard disks are shared to provide access to shared 
data or shared software. 

LANs provide shared resources through a network of permanently connected 
cabling, controlled by a combination of hardware and software. The function 
of the LAN hardware and software is to support communications between the PCs 
and the shared resources. In order to provide a common point of reference for 
discussing communications, the International Standards Organization has 
developed a model architecture. 



5-1 



5.1.1 OPEN SYSTEMS INTERCONNECTION MODEL 

In 1978, the International Organization for Standardization recommended 
the use of a seven-layer model for communications architecture. The Open 
Systems Interconnection (OSI) model can be applied to both networked and 
non-networked communications environments. The model specifies a hierarchy of 
independent layers (see Figure 5-1), each of which performs a subset of the 
communications functions. Each layer provides services to the next higher 
layer and uses the next lower layer as a source of services. 

Specific standards have been published, by the International Organization 
for Standardization, for the physical and data link layers. Generally accepted 
standards for the other layers are lacking. 

The physical layer consists of the electrical and mechanical aspects of 
transmitting the data on a physical medium. This layer also connects, 
maintains, and disconnects physical links. The physical layer includes the 
hardware: interface devices (if any), modems, and communications lines. 

The data link layer controls the transfer of data through the physical 
link, providing for any necessary synchronization, error control, and flow 
control . 

The network layer establishes, maintains, and terminates logical 
connections between workstations or end points. In a LAN environment, the 
network layer is used when a workstation needs to communicate, through the 
LAN, with a device not on the LAN. The three most common functions provided 
by the network layer are: 

o a bridge or gateway between two physically distinct LANs, allowing 
workstations on one LAN to communicate with workstations on another 
LAN; 

o a link from a LAN to a host computer system, through which all 
workstations on the LAN communicate with the host; and 



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o a dial-up capability into or out of the LAN (not a specific 

workstation), allowing remote workstations to connect to the LAN 

through telephone lines and to function as permanently connected 
workstations. 

The transport layer controls the transfer of data between logical end 
points once the path has been established by the network or data link layers. 
It provides end-to-end error recovery and flow control, and any necessary 
sequencing. 

The session layer handles the communications between applications (as 
opposed to end points), establishing, maintaining, and terminating 
communications between applications. 

The purpose of the presentation layer is to provide a standardized 
applications interface as well as to perform commonly used data 
transformations such as encryption, text compression, reformatting, etc. 

The final layer is the application layer, which provides user services 
such as resource sharing, file transfers, database management, and network 
management (security, status, etc.). 

LANs include hardware and software components. The LAN hardware consists 
of the physical and data link layers; the LAN software includes the network, 
transport, session, presentation, and application layers. The hardware and 
software components, however, are not independent of each other and may not be 
completely distinct. For example, data link functions may be implemented 
through hardware (e.g., on a network interface board), or may be implemented 
through software. 

5.1.2 THE LAN PHYSICAL LAYER 

The physical layer in LAN implementations can be defined by two main 
characteristics: the topology and the transmission medium. The topology of 
the LAN refers to the way in which the workstations and shared resources are 



5-4 



interconnected. The transmission medium consists of the physical cabling. In 
theory, topology and transmission media are independent. However, in LAN 
implementations, these characteristics become interrelated. 

5.1.2.1 LAN Topologies 

Most LANs are based on one of three basic topologies: star, ring, and 
bus. More complex topologies are usually combinations of the three basic ones. 

In a star topology, illustrated in Figure 5-2, communications control is 
centralized. Each workstation or shared resource (e.g., printer, hard disk) 
is connected to a central hub. The hub functions as a data switch. Because 
the hub must manage concurrent data paths for the various workstations and 
resources, the hub hardware and software must be fairly complex; however, the 
workstation communications tasks are quite simple as workstations "talk" only 
to the hub. 

A ring topology is based on a closed loop, shown in Figure 5-3. The data 
is always transmitted in only one direction. Each workstation on the ring 
must have a hardware repeater, which receives data on one side of the loop and 
transmits (repeats) it out the other side. This approach is simpler than the 
star topology because the network devices, the repeaters, are less complex 
than the hub of the star. The workstation processing, however, is more 
complex because each workstation must then perform the functions of packaging 
the data to be transmitted along the loop and controlling access to the closed 
loop. 

The third basic topology is the bus, which consists of only the cabling 
media itself: no hub switch, no repeaters. Each device attaches to the linear 
bus through a hardware interface tap (see Figure 5-4). Any data transmitted 
on the bus travels the entire length of the bus and can be received by any 
attached workstation. The bus topology can be viewed as even more simple than 
the ring topology, in that there are no network devices at all, not even 
repeaters; consequently, the entire burden of packaging data and of 
controlling access is placed on the workstations. 



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Reliability, expandability, and performance are all factors to be 

considered when selecting a LAN topology. Table 5-1 provides a comparison 

between the three topologies in vulnerability to failure and in ease of 
expansion. 



TOPOLOGY 




Star 


Ring 


Bus 


CHALLENGE 
Adding new 
workstations 

Workstation 
failure 

Network device 
failure 


Must run 
new cable 

Affects 
just one 

Hub fai lure 
brings network 
down 


Must bring 
network down 

* Brings 
network down 

* Repeater failure 
brings network 
down 


Non- 
intrusive 

Affects 
just one 

No network 
devices 


^Network can be reinitializeo when faulty device is removed from the ring. 



TABLE 5-1: TOPOLOGIES - VULNERABILITY AND EXPANSION CAPABILITIES 



5.1.2.2 LAN Transmission Media 

The second characteristic, in addition to network topology, of the 
physical layer of a LAN implementation is the transmission medium used. All 
LANs use a cabling medium to connect workstations and other devices to the 
network. The cabling may be twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, or fiber optic 
cable. If the cabling is coaxial or fiber optic, the type of signals passed 
through the cable may be either digital (baseband) or analog (broadband). 



5-9 



Twisted-pair cabling is the least expensive, in cost of both the cable and 
installation. It can be reliably used over short distances and at relatively 
slow data rates. Buildings constructed within the past several years may 
already have excess twisted-pair wiring installed. Such wiring can be used to 
implement a LAN; however, it should be shielded twisted-pair cabling, as 
twisted-pair LANs are highly vulnerable to electrical interference. 

Coaxial cable is the most versatile of the transmission media, providing 
faster data rates over longer distances than twisted-pair wiring. Three types 
of coaxial cable are commonly used in LANs. 

o Standard 50-ohm cable may be used for baseband LANs. The maximum 
length of the entire span is 2.5 km; the maximum number of nodes for 
each segment is 100. 

o Thin 50-ohm cable is a lower-cost alternative for baseband LANs. The 
maximum length of the entire span is limited to 1 km, with a limit of 
30 nodes for each segment. 

o 75-ohm standard CATV (cable TV) cable supports either baseband or 
broadband LANs, although it is rarely used for baseband. 

Fiber optic cable supports data transfer at high rates. In addition, this 
medium is not vulnerable to electrical interference or illegal 
electro-magnetic taps. However, the medium is currently both expensive and 
difficult to connect. 

Selection of the transmission medium is determined by five interrelated 
factors: 

o the connectivity (point-to-point linking two transmitting/receiving 
devices, or multipoint connecting multiple devices); 

o kind of signaling (digital versus analog); 

o required data transmission rates; 



5-10 



o number of devices on the LAN; and 

o distance between network devices, or total network geographic area. 

The following two tables summarize the transmission media characteristics. 
The values are representative of what is commercially feasible, as opposed to 
state-of-the-art limits. 



TWISTED- 
PAIR 



COAXIAL 



FIBER 
OPTIC 



Total data rate 
Repeater spacing 



4 Mbps 
2-6 km 



500 Mbps 
1-10 km 



2 Gbps 
6-8 km 



TABLE 5-2: TRANSMISSION MEDIA SUMMARY - STAR AND RING TOPOLOGIES 





TWISTED- 
PAIR 


THIN 
50-OHM 
COAXIAL 


STANDARD 
50-OHM 
COAXIAL 


75-OHM 
COAXIAL 


Maximum data rate 


1-2 Mbps 


10 Mbps 


10 Mbps 


20-50 Mbps 


Type of signalling 


baseband 


baseband 


baseband 


broadband 


Maximum data rate 


1 Mbps 


10 Mbps 


10 Mbps 


20 Mbps 


Maximum length 


1 km 


1 km 


2.5 km 


10+ km 


Maximum number of 


10's 


100's 


100's 


1000' s 


devices 










Device spacing 




.5 m 


2.5 m 




Maximum distance 




.2 km 


.5 km 




between nodes 











TABLE 5-3: TRANSMISSION MEDIA SUMMARY - BUS TOPOLOGY 



5-11 



5.1.3 THE LAN DATA LINK LAYER 

As discussed in Section 5.1.1, the data link, layer controls the transfer 
of data through the physical layer, providing for any necessary 
synchronization, error control, and flow control. More specifically, the data 
link layer controls the access to the physical layer. It also includes 
logical link control functions to provide services to the higher layers, 
primarily the network control layer. 

By controlling access to the network, traffic on the network may also be 
controlled. The most common techniques used to control transmission are: 

o token-passing - workstations can transmit only when they receive a 
"token" giving them the right to transmit; 

o slotted access - each workstation is allocated specific time slots and 
amounts of data for transmission; 

o polling - workstations are asked, in turn, whether they wish to 
transmit; and 

o contention - each workstation attempts to transmit data when it 
wishes; some form of "collision management" is required to determine 
when two workstations are interfering with each other as they contend 
for access. 

In addition to differing techniques for access control, control of access 
can be centralized, with one unit in the network determining which devices are 
accessing which data paths. Alternatively, control can be distributed, with 
each workstation handling access control. The centralized approach is used in 
the star topology, with the hub of the star controlling the access. It 
simplifies the coordination of access control and relieves the workstations of 
this burden. However, this dependency on the hub means that if the hub fails, 
the entire network fails. In addition, the centralized unit may bottleneck. 
With centralized access control, the control unit must decide which 
workstation is to transmit next. The two most common approaches to 
controlling transmission with a star topology are polling and slotted access. 



5-12 



Ring and bus topologies, on the other hand, use a distributed approach to 
controlling access. Each workstation must determine whether it may transmit 
at any given point in time. One method is to use slotted access, allocating 
specific time slots to each workstation; however, this is rarely used in a LAN 
environment. A second method is token-passing, where a workstation wishing to 
transmit first transmits a token (a few bytes of data) to ask whether it is 
okay with all the other workstations for it to transmit and, if acceptable, 
then transmits the data. The third method is contention: workstations 
compete for time, rather than trying to determine whether it is their turn. 
Table 5-3 summarizes the relationships between topology and access control 
methodology. 



TOPOLOGY 




Star 


Ring 


Bus 


TYPE OF CONTROL 
CONTROL METHODS 


centralized 

polling 
slotted access 


distributed 

token-passing 
slotted access 


distributed 

token-passing 
contention 



TABLE 5-4: ACCESS CONTROL METHODOLOGY 



In addition to controlling access to the physical layer, the data link 
layer must provide services to the higher layers. The logical link control 
functions serve the higher layers and are not dependent on the physical 
layer. They provide for error control, including error detection and 
acknowledgment. In addition, they provide flow control, ensuring that the 
receiver is not overwhelmed with too much data (e.g., ensuring that printer 
buffers do not overflow). 



5-13 



5.1.4 THE LAN SOFTWARE LAYERS 

Every LAN must have a physical layer and a data link layer, usually 
contained within the LAN hardware, although some data link layer functions may 
actually be implemented through software. The other layers, however, are all 
software capabilities which are, with the possible exception of the network 
layer, independent of the hardware capabilities. Because the network, 
transport, session, presentation, and application layers are contained within 
the LAN software and because the various functions may or may not be 
implemented within a specific vendor's product, the LAN software is discussed 
in terms of capabilities provided rather than with reference to the OSI 
model. A further reason for this format is that standards for the software 
layers of the OSI model have not been established. 

5.2 LAN SOFTWARE 

5.2.1 RECOMMENDED LAN SOFTWARE 

The recommended LAN software is Advanced NetWare/286 from Novell. The GSA 
price is $1,932. 

5.2.2 RATIONALE 

The ISN evaluation team reviewed five different LAN software packages. Of 

the five, Advanced NetWare excels in its support of a wide variety of LAN 

hardware. The survey results, detailed in Appendix F, are summarized in the 
following table. 



LAN SOFTWARE 


Bundled w/ 
Hardware 


NETBIOS 
Compatible 


Bridge un- 
like LANs 


No. HW 

Config. 

Supported 


GSA Cost 


3Com 3+ Share 

Banyon VINES/286 

Fox 10-net 

Lee Data LANMASTER 

Novell Advanced NetWare 


N 
N 
Y 
Y 
N 


? 

Y 
Y 
N 
Y 


N 
Y 
N 
Y 
Y 


2 

10 

1 

6 

28 


$1,149 

1,895 
(bundled) 
(bundled) 

1,932 



TABLE 5-5: LAN SOFTWARE 



5-14 



Of the LAN software evaluated, FOX 10-net and Lee Data LANMASTER were 
rejected due to the bundling of hardware and software. Fox 10-net requires 
the Fox LAN hardware. The Lee Data software will run on a variety of LAN 
hardware, but requires the Lee Data LANMASTER file server. 

The 3Com 3+ Share software was rejected for two reasons. First, the file 
server uses the MS-DOS directory structure. In general, this will increase 
the time required to search for files. More importantly, however, is the fact 
that the file server is not protected by passwords or any other security. 
Anyone who walks up to the file server can access any of the data on the 
shared hard disk simply using standard MS-DOS commands. The second reason for 
rejecting 3+ Share is the lack of NETBIOS compatibility. Although the vendor 
reports NETBIOS compatibility, a January 1987 article in LAN Magazine 
indicated that 3+ Share is not fully compatible. This potential lack of 
NETBIOS compatibility presents a possible system integration problem. 

Deciding between VINES/286 and Advanced NetWare/286 for the recommended 
LAN software was extremely difficult. VINES/286 provides excellent 
communications interfaces. It also provides better network diagnostics. On 
the other hand, Advanced NetWare is available on a wider variety of hardware, 
provides an excellent on-line tutorial, and protects the file server's hard 
disk from keyboard access. 

With Advanced NetWare/286, separately purchased bridging software provides 
extensive support of inter-LAN communications, both with LANs running Advanced 
NetWare and with dissimilar LANs supporting the X.25 protocol for the network 
control layer. In addition, the Novell network will operate through a digital 
switch; however, a bridging computer and additional software may be required. 
Advanced NetWare also supports both dedicated and non-dedicated file servers. 
Because Advanced NetWare/286 takes advantage of the 80286 protected addressing 
mode, the file server can be used as a workstation with 640 Kb available to 
the user. Due to the widespread use of Advanced NetWare/286, the network 
version of most software packages is available under Advanced NetWare. 

Advanced NetWare/286 also provides excellent file server performance. The 
file server operating system is a multi-user operating system which uses its 



5-15 



own basic input/output system (rather than the single-user BIOS which supports 
MS-DOS). It uses more efficient directory storage and file retrieval 
techniques than MS-DOS. When the file server is also used as a workstation, 
MS-DOS runs under the file server operating system. 

The combination of performance, hardware flexibility, and ease of use 
results in the recommendation of Advanced NetWare/286. For currently 
installed LANs not using Advanced NetWare/286, ISN recommends that the site 
investigate the possibility of implementing Advanced NetWare with the 
currently installed LAN hardware. 

5.2.3 ALTERNATIVES 

ISN strongly recommends that all TU sites implement Advanced NetWare/286. 
The recommended alternative is the Advanced NetWare upgrade, System Fault 
Tolerant (SFT) NetWare. SFT NetWare provides all of the Advanced NetWare 
functionality. It also adds a greater degree of hardware protection to that 
already present in Advanced NetWare. For sites which have an existing LAN 
file server and have experienced serious reliability problems, SFT NetWare 
should be considered as an alternative to Advanced NetWare/286. 

At the present stage of TUNS system development, any network operating 
system which supports the MS-DOS 3.1 File Lock/Unlock functions will support 
TUNS. The TUNS conceptual design requires only that the DBMS interface with 
the network file server. Unify, the recommended DBMS, requires only MS-DOS 
File Lock/Unlock implementation; unlike many LAN DBMS packages, it does not 
require NETBIOS implementation. However, during the detailed system design 
process, additional constraints may be imposed upon the LAN software. 

5.3 LAN HARDWARE 

5.3.1 RECOMMENDED LAN HARDWARE 

The recommended LAN hardware is the Etherlink card for each workstation 
and the Etherlink Plus card for the file servers, using thin 50-ohm coaxial 
cable. The GSA cost of the IBM-compatible Etherlink Interface card from 3Com 
Corporation is $451; the Plus card costs approximately $651. These costs are 
used for estimating network configuration costs. 



5-16 



5.3.2 RATIONALE 

The most important consideration in evaluating LAN hardware for a general, 
site-independent recommendation is flexibility. A bus topology is the most 
flexible wiring configuration. The star topology has two drawbacks: it is 
the least able to accommodate network modification; and it usually requires 
about twice as much cable as a bus topology. Current ring implementations are 
built as rings of network interface units (which are separate hardware 
components), with workstations configured as stars off each network interface 
unit. This again requires approximately twice the cable as a bus topology, as 
well as requiring the additional hardware of network interface units. 

In determining the best transmission medium, fiber optic cable was ruled 
out due to cost and lack of bus implementations. It is used primarily for 
point-to-point transmissions, such as star and ring topologies. 

For a generic recommendation, coaxial cable is preferable to twisted-pair 
cabling. Twisted-pair cabling is very susceptible to electrical interference 
and outside noise, although the vulnerability can be reduced by using shielded 
twisted-pairs. Twisted-pair cabling cannot be recommended, and should not be 
used, without a site survey examining the planned cable paths and the 
proximity to potential sources of interference. 

During the process of developing the LAN hardware recommendations, 
thirteen different products were identified and evaluated. One major 
difficulty experienced while conducting the survey was distinguishing between 
LAN hardware and software information provided by the vendors. Table 5-6 
shows a summary of the information obtained from the vendors. 

The table shows that the 3Com EtherSeries LAN is both the least expensive 
to implement and supports the highest maximum transmission speed. The Novell 
Ethernet LAN ranks as the second least expensive, based on the ratio of cost 
to maximum transmission speed. In fact, Novell is marketing the 3Com Ethernet 
board under the Novell label. 



5-17 









QUOTED 


MAXIMUM 


PRICE PER 


RUNS NOVELL 






CABLE 


PRICE 


TRANSMISSION 


MAXIMUM 


ADVANCED 


NETWORK 


TOPOlOGT 


MEDIUM 


PER US 


SPEED (Mbps) 


SPEED 


NETWARE/286 


3Coa EtiierSertes 


bus 


COtllil 


$«S) 


10 


$45. 10 


Ves 


AST Resource Sharing 


hut 


coei 1*1 


$4*5 


s 


$99.10 


Ves 


AST PCNet II 


but 


t«isted-p*ir 


$495 


.( 


$618.75 


Ves 


ATM Stmin 
•anytn Vines 
Foji 10- Net 


lt«r 

* 

but 


totstod-pelr 

• 

taisted-piir 


$477 

• 

1646 


1 

1 to 10* 
J 


$477.00 
$695.00 


Ves 

Mo 
Mo 


1IH PC-Netvork 


tree 


CO«li*l 


$767 


2 


$381.00 


Ves 


UN Token Ring 


ring 


t«isted-p«1r 


f 70S 


4 


$176.25 


Ves 


ll* Det« AftCME T 


ring 


twisted-pair 


$595 


2.S 


$237.(0 


Mo 


Novell Ethernet 


bus 


Coeiial 


$524 


10 


$52.40 


Ves 


Orchid PC Met 


bus 


coaifel 


$495 


1 


$495.00 


Ves 


Quedrea Quednet VI 


tt*r 


coeiial 


$795 


2 


$397.50 


Ves 


Stendtrd Micro ARCNET 


ring 


COaiial 


$584 


2.S 


$233. 60 


Ves 


• Ian/on aerkets 


file servers end • network 


operating 


systea, not • 


full LAN' 





TABLE 5-6: LAN HARDWARE 

There are several reasons for the low cost of Ethernet LANs. Ethernet 1s 
a de facto Industry standard, with well-proven technology. It is an open 
architecture rather than proprietary; as a result, Ethernet LANs are available 
from a wide variety of vendors, which fosters price competition. A second 
reason for the low cost is the use of thin 50-ohm coaxial cable instead of 
standard 50-ohm or 75-ohm coaxial. Because of the greater flexibility of the 
cable Itself, additional transceivers are not required as cable taps. The 
third reason 1s the topology, which does not require the additional cost of 
either network Interface units or hubs. 

ISN recommends the use of the 3Com Etherlink Interface card for each 
workstation, and the Etherlink Plus card for the file server. The Plus card 
1s recommended over the standard Etherlink card for three reasons: (1) it 
has Its own micro processor so the CPU is free for other transactions; (2) it 
1s 25X - 35X faster than the standard card; and (3) 1t sends and receives data 
concurrently. These features, while beneflcal for the file server, are not 
required by each workstation. 

Both 3Com cards provide additional flexibility not provided by all 
Ethernet cards: the same card can be Installed with either thin or standard 
50-ohm coaxial cable. ISN is not recommending the use of standard 50-ohm 
cable due to the need for additional hardware transceivers as cable taps. 
However, if the same card is to be purchased by all TUNS sites, the dual 



5-18 



capability may be important. Should the site survey show that the site 
requires standard 50-ohm coaxial to support the necessary network 
configuration, the site will still be able to use the TUNS standard interface 
card. 

ISN also recommends that the TUNS Program Office provide each site with 
consultation and guidance in performing a thorough site survey and in 
selecting the particular LAN hardware configuration best suited to that site. 

5.3.3 ALTERNATIVES 

Any LAN hardware using Novell Advanced NetWare/286 as the network 
operating system is an acceptable alternative to 3Com's Ethernet hardware. 

5.4 LAN FILE SERVERS 

5.4.1 RECOMMENDED LAN FILE SERVERS 

For sites with five or fewer workstations on the LAN, the recommended file 
server is a dedicated Compaq DeskPro 286 with a 40 Mb hard disk. The 
estimated cost is $4,738. This is based on the estimated cost of the 
workstation, $4,087, plus the cost of the network interface card, $651. 

For sites with five to twelve workstations, a Compaq DeskPro 386 with a 70 
Mb hard disk is recommended. The estimated cost is $6,387. 

If a site has more than twelve workstations, the recommended file server 
is a Novell T286B file server with a 183 Mb hard disk and a 60 Mb tape backup 
unit. The GSA cost is $20,060. This includes the LAN software, the LAN 
interface card for the file server, and the tape backup unit. 

5.4.2 RATIONALE 

Using the TUNS FRD as a starting point, the evaluation team developed the 
following volume estimates for the TUNS-specific application data residing on 
the file server hard disk. The details are presented in Appendix G. 



5-19 



Site Size 


Required 
Disk Space 


Recommended 
Disk Space 


Recommended 
File Server 


Cost 


5 users 
12 users 
30 users 


24 Mb 

58 Mb 

144 Mb 


40 Mb 

70 Mb 

183 Mb 


Compaq 286 
Compaq 386 
Novell T286B 


$4,738 

$6,387 

$20,060 



TABLE 5-7: RECOMMENDED FILE SERVERS 

The file server disk space requirements and the requirement to support 
Novell Advanced NetWare as the operating system are the basis for the 
recommended servers. 

There are advantages to having a file server which has the secondary 
capability of operating as a fully functional workstation. Although ISN 
strongly recommends that the file server not be used as a normal workstation, 
having that capability is often useful. For example, if all the normal 
workstations are in use, the file server may be used for occasional activities 
such as writing quick memos or demonstrating the site capabilities to 
visitors. In addition, expansion can readily be accomplished by upgrading to 
the next larger file server thus freeing the current server for normal 
workstation use. However, care must be exercised when using a file server as 
a workstation. The user must not lock up the workstation because such action 
in turn locks the network. If the site plans to utilize the server as a 
workstation, the non-dedicated version of Novell Advanced Netware 286 must be 
purchased. 

Although it is advantageous to have a combined workstation/file server, 
ISN is recommending a Novell T286B for large LANs. Novell Advanced NetWare is 
currently available for a Compaq Deskpro 386; however, an external drive would 
be required to expand it to the 183 Mb capacity required in the large LANS. 
Because the Novell T286B is a complete unit capable of expansion up to 2 
gigabytes, ISN recommends the Novell T286B in order to provide large LANs with 
the required disk capacity. 



5-20 



5.5 SITE SURVEY REQUIREMENTS 

The LAN hardware and software sections have identified the LAN best suited 
to TUNS use and one which will accommodate the majority of TU sites. NASA 
Headquarters will specify for each site the additional equipment and software 
needed to implement TUNS at that site. This information should be used as a 
guideline to identify what is to be procured at each site. However, ISN must 
stress the importance of a LAN site survey, performed by either the LAN vendor 
or the agency telecommunications staff, prior to procurement of the LAN. 

The objectives of the LAN site survey will be to define the precise number 
of workstations, servers, printers, and the telecommunications equipment 
needed at each site; the precise location of each item of equipment; the 
estimated growth at the site; the type and amount of cable needed under the 
office conditions at the site; and the flexibility required of the LAN in 
order to comply with office modifications projected in the future. 

It is conceivable that the site survey may define a requirement for 
network hardware not anticipated in this study. Before procurement of the 
recommended LAN, the site should coordinate the requirement with NASA 
Headquarters to ensure that TUNS will be compatible with the desired LAN. 

The site survey should result in a schematic drawing of the LAN showing 
the cabling, the electrical and telecommunications outlets, and the placement 
of the hardware. The site survey should also include an installation plan 
from the vendor who is to provide this service. This plan must describe the 
site preparation required before the LAN can be installed, the steps required 
to complete this preparation, the steps required to set up the hardware, the 
steps necessary to connect the LAN, and the steps necessary to install the LAN 
software. The plan should also provide estimated completion dates and a list 
of required equipment for each of the steps detailed above. 

Finally, ISN wishes to stress the importance of the site survey process 
and the importance of the performance of this process being accomplished by 
professionals who are familiar with the installation of LANs. 



5-21 



SECTION 6.0 
SOFTWARE RECOMMENDATIONS 



In addition to the hardware and LAN components described in Sections 4 
and 5, TUNS will include software. Some of the software will be custom 
designed for TUNS; however, off-the-shelf products will satisfy the majority 
of the general office automation requirements. This section provides 
off-the-shelf software recommendations for six categories: database 
management systems, spreadsheets, word processors, backup/archiving, 
communications, and utility/miscellaneous. These products will be implemented 
in Phase I. Graphics and project management software will be implemented in 
Phase II. 

6.1 DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 

6.1.1 RECOMMENDED DBMS 

The DBMS recommended as the basis for TUNS system development is Unify 
Version 3.2 from Unify Corporation. The government price for the complete 
Unify development package is based on the number of users, as follows: 



Single-user system 


$557 










Four-user system 


$1187 


or 


$297 


per 


user 


Eight-user system 


$2237 


or 


$280 


per 


user 


Sixteen-user system 


$4337 


or 


$271 


per 


user 


Thirty-two user system 


$8397 


or 


$262 


per 


user 



6.1.2 RATIONALE 

As discussed in Section 2.1.4, the DBMS is one of the most critical 

components of TUNS. The DBMS must serve two distinct roles: it must support 

the development of the TUNS system, and it must be suitable for use by the 
end-user. 



6-1 



In order to support TUNS development, the DBMS must meet the following 
technical requirements: 

o A networked version must be currently available, providing for 

storage of shared DBMS files, 
o The networked version must provide some mechanism for handling record 

contention (to allow multiple users to access the same file 

simultaneously), 
o There must be a high level programming language interface to support 

development of the application software, 
o A compiler must be available for the programming language to maximize 

application response time. 
o The programming language must be capable of initiating execution of 

other non-DBMS software programs (e.g., DOS commands and utilities, a 

spreadsheet package), 
o The programming language must support structured programming and 

subroutines. 

Based on a literature search and on the TUNS Hardware/Software Survey, six 
DBMS packages were selected for detailed evaluation and benchmark testing: 
dBASE III Plus, Oracle, KnowledgeMan/2, R:Base System V, PC/Focus, and Unify. 
Additional benchmark tests were performed using dBASE III Plus with Clipper. 
Clipper, manufactured by Nantucket, Inc., is a software compiler for dBASE III 
Plus. Clipper compiles dBASE program files into executable machine language 
files and provides the capability to utilize arrays and menu commands. It can 
initiate calls to C and Assembly language routines and decrease the execution 
time of dBASE III applications. After further investigation, Oracle was 
eliminated as a possibility because a LAN version of the software, although in 
development for some time, is still not available. 

The detailed evaluation examined two separate issues: suitability of the 
packages for TUNS applications development and suitability as a site-specific 
end-user DBMS. The benchmark testing consisted of timed tests designed to 
measure the speed of storing/retrieving records using various keys to access 
the data. The specific tests were based on the expected demands of the 
TUNS-specific applications and on the expected kinds of end-user queries. 
Evaluation and benchmarking details are contained in Appendix G. 



6-2 



The packages were evaluated on six factors for TUNS applications 
development: 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



programming language support; 

screen/forms creation and handling; 

speed (the timed benchmarks); 

report generation capabilities; 

quality of reference documentation (distinct from user documentation); 

minicomputer and/or mainframe availability; and 

other vendor-provided utilities. 



The following table summarizes the evaluation results for suitability in 
applications development. Of the five packages, Unify was determined by ISN 
to be the best for applications development. 



FACTOR 

Language 

Screens/forms 

Speed 

Reports 

Documentation 

Availability 

(mini /mainframe) 
Utilities 
TOTAL 



POINTS 



40 

20 

20 

8 

5 

5 



22 

7 
6 
7 
5 


1 



29 
7 

5 
3 




22 

10 

20 

8 

1 

4 



100 



48 



R:BASE 




SYSTEM V 


UNIFY 


30 


38 


15 


18 


19 


19 


7 


8 


4 


4 





4 


2 


1 



46 



67 



77 



92 



TABLE 6-1: DBMS SUITABLITY FOR APPLICATIONS DEVELOPMENT 

In evaluating each of the packages for end-user applications, six factors 
were considered: 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



number of required features, as identified in the TUNS FRD; 

ease of use; 

organization, clarity and completeness of user documentation; 

availability at TU sites; and 

cost. 



6-3 



The comparison of the five packages, based on these six factors, is shown 
in the table below. As indicated in this table, R:Base is the best database 
for end-user applications, with dBASE III Plus ranking second and Unify third. 





POINTS 








R:BASE 




FACTOR 


POSSIBLE 


DBASE III+ 


KMAN/2 


PC/ FOCUS 


SYSTEM V 


UNIFY 


Required Features 


40 


33 


28 


25 


36 


34 


Ease of Use 


25 


19 


15 


17 


23 


20 


Documentation 


20 


15 


10 


8 


15 


13 


Ease of Learning 


10 


9 


8 


4 


9 


6 


Site Availability 


3 


2 


1 





1 





Cost 


2 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


TOTAL 


100 


79 


63 


55 


86 


74 



TABLE 6-2: DBMS SUITABILITY FOR END-USER APPLICATIONS 

The two evaluations, reviewed independently, lead to two different DBMS 
recommendations: Unify for TUNS applications development, and R:Base System V 
for end-user development. Although it would be possible to install both 
databases on each network, the main drawbacks are cost and confusion. The 
confusion will result from users switching back and forth between the two 
database packages, having to remember different function key usages and 
different utility package usages. It is clearly preferable to install just 
one DBMS. The following table shows the combined evaluation. 



EVALUATION 

Development 
End-User 

TOTAL 


POINTS 
POSSIBLE 

100 
100 

200 


DBASE III+ 

48 
79 

127 


KMAN/2 

46 
63 

109 


PC/FOCUS 

67 
55 

122 


R:BASE 
SYSTEM V 

77 
86 

163 


UNIFY 

92 
74 


166 



TABLE 6-3: DBMS EVALUATION SUMMARY 



6-4 



Unify has several advantages over R:Base System V as a development DBMS. 
First, Unify is available on many minicomputers and on some mainframes. 
RrBase is not. The central facility DBMS applications will be developed 
during Phase II, and the use of Unify would greatly simplify this process. 
This will decrease the development time, as well as provide a more highly 
integrated system for the end-user. 

Second, Unify provides a built-in language interface with the C language. 
It is a very efficient, well-implemented interface, since Unify itself is 
written in C. R:Base System V is written in Fortran and provides a Fortran 
interface. To use R:Base with C, it is necessary to link together not only 
the C program, the C runtime library modules, and the R:Base subroutines, but 
also the Fortran runtime library. This increases the size of the programs 
significantly, resulting in slower application program loading, execution, and 
response time. 

The major reason that Unify was rated lower than R:Base for end-users is 
the fact that it is somewhat more difficult to learn. This is partly due to 
the excellent R:Base help screens. However, it is also due to the complexity 
and power of the Unify menu system. Users must understand the menu and 
security approach before modifying menus. Since TUNS will be integrated, very 
few menu modifications by the users are anticipated. 

Once users have overcome the learning barrier, there are several benefits 
of Unify for end-user applications. For instance when implementing simple 
applications, such as storing and retrieving a name and address file, 
end-users familiar with Unify would find it quicker for development. Once the 
record is defined, a default screen can be created automatically. Using the 
default screen, users can add, modify, delete, or query records. Such 
query-by-form results can be displayed on the screen, sent to the printer, or 
sent to the report writer. None of this requires knowledge of any 
programming, or knowledge of how to create custom forms. 

Another benefit is that Unify provides much better control over access to 
data in the end-user environment. Through the menu system, Unify controls 
access to menus and programs based on the user ID or user group. The menu 
system also controls whether a particular user is allowed to add, modify, 



6-5 



inquire, and/or delete. It is not necessary to define different menus for 
different users; if a user does not have access to a particular selection, 
that selection does not appear on that user's screen. So, although there may 
be only one set of menus, each user may see individual menus. 

The third advantage of Unify as a development DBMS is that is allows more 
complete control of the network and database environment than dBase or 
R:Base. Specifically, Unify's record and field locking attributes and ease of 
user password management are better than either dBase or R:Base. Because the 
entire Unify database is opened as one DOS file, Unify is not restricted by 
the number of "discrete" databases that may be opened at one time. With Unify 
it is easier to establish a relational database structure, perform direct 
standard query language (SQL) queries upon aggregates of data elements, and 
back up or transmit information from the database. 

Fourth, Unify also provides the potential for migrating the software to 
minicomputers or mainframes. Unlike R:Base, Unify is not tied to the IBM- 
compatible PC environment. While R:Base started as a single-user PC DBMS 
which has been expanded to include LAN support, Unify started as a multi-user 
UNIX-based system which has been down-scaled to the XENIX and the MS-DOS 
environments. 

Fifth, Unify possesses a more powerful search and query language than dBase or 
R:Base. For example, the SQL supplied by Unify is similar to query languages 
used by the online search community. In contrast, dBase is similar to a 
programming language that requires rudimentary knowledge of computer 
programming to perform complex searches. Another feature of the SQL, supplied 
by Unify, is its current growth as a widely implemented standard database 
query language. Therefore, SQL should have a longer lifespan than dBase 
language. 

Unify is the recommended DBMS for TUNS applications development and 
end-user support. Unify's address is Unify Corporation, 4000 Kruse Way Place, 
Lake Oswego, OR 97035. The Unify Information Hotline number is (503) 635-7777 
for sales office nearest your site. 



6-6 



6.1.3 ALTERNATIVES 

The only feasible alternative to Unify is R:Base System V. However, 
selection of R:Base System V will have a significant impact on the size and 
complexity of the development process. If R:Base were to be used, a security 
system and a menu processor system would need to be developed as applications 
software. These facilities are already available within Unify. 

dBASE III Plus, while available at many TU sites, is not recommended for 
TUNS. Using Clipper significantly increased dBASE Ill's speed in the 
benchmark tests (see Appendix G) ; however, increased speed alone is not a 
sufficient reason to recommend dBASE III as the DBMS for TUNS. Clipper- 
complied dBASE code provides programming language support and security over 
the program code; however, if dBASE Assist is available to the user, the data 
file contents cannot be protected because Assist can access any dBASE file. 
Security concerns, and the lack of minicomputer and/or mainframe availability 
are factors that negatively impact dBASE Ill's potential for applications 
development. 

6.2 SPREADSHEET 

6.2.1 RECOMMENDED SPREADSHEET 

The recommended spreadsheet for inclusion in TUNS is Lotus 1-2-3 from 
Lotus Development Corp. The GSA cost for Version 2.0 is $304.43. 

6.2.2 RATIONALE 

In determining the evaluation criteria and weighting factors for 
spreadsheet software, ISN first considered the spreadsheet applications 
described in the TUNS FRD. With the knowledge of how spreadsheet software 
might be applied to TU activities, minimum requirements and desirable features 
were identified. In addition, TU sites were surveyed for their input on 
required spreadsheet capabilities. The following spreadsheet features were 
identified as required: 



6-7 



o menu and command driven; 

o help screens; 

o applications development generator; 

o macro capability; 

o ASCII and other file compatibility; 

o word processing interface (ASCII export feature); 

o graphics; 

o Boolean operators; 

o financial, statistical, and time calculations; 

o manual and automatic recalculation modes; 

o printing macros; 

o printing of ranges and formulas; 

o headers, footers; 

o cut and paste; and 

o stop key. 

Based on a literature search and on the TUNS Hardware/Software Survey, 
three spreadsheets were selected for detailed evaluation and benchmarking: 
Lotus 1-2-3, Version 2.01; TWIN, Version 1.4; and SuperCalc 4. Lotus 1-2-3 
and SuperCalc 4 are both widely-used spreadsheet packages. TWIN is a low-cost 
Lotus 1-2-3 look-alike. 

Each of these packages was evaluated on seven factors: 

o number of required features, as identified in the TUNS FRD; 
o speed (the timed benchmarks); 

o ease of use for the experienced user, partially determined by the 
number of keystrokes required for a given operation; 

o organization, understandability, and completeness of the 
documentation; 

o ease of learning; 

o availability at TU sites; and 

o cost of the software. 



6-8 



The evaluation results for required features and speed are detailed in 
Appendix H. The following table summarizes all the evaluation results: 





POINTS 








FACTOR 


POSSIBLE 


1-2-3 


THIN 


SUPERCALC 4 


Required features 


40 


38 


38 


38 


Speed 


20 


20 





7 


Ease of use 


15 


7 


8 


15 


Documentation 


10 


9 


6 


9 


Ease of learning 


10 


8 


8 


10 


Site avail abi lity 


3 


3 





1 


Cost 


2 





2 


1 


TOTAL 


100 


85 


62 


81 



TABLE 6-4: SPREADSHEET EVALUATION SUMMARY 

All of the evaluated packages were equivalent in terms of required 
features, and approximately equivalent in terms of ease of use, ease of 
learning, and documentation. However, Lotus 1-2-3 far out-performed the other 
packages in the speed at which it executed commands. Speed is especially 
critical to the performance of spreadsheets because their primary function is 
to execute calculations. In addition to being the fastest, Lotus 1-2-3 is 
also the most widely available spreadsheet product at the sites that responded 
to the TUNS Hardware/Software Survey. Eighty-two percent of the sites listing 
spreadsheet capability named Lotus. 

6.2.3 ALTERNATIVE 

As an alternative spreadsheet, the software evaluation team recommends 
SuperCalc 4. This software is not as fast as Lotus 1-2-3, nor as readily 
available at the TU sites; however, the team found it easier to use. Often, 
fewer keystrokes were required to execute a given function, and errors were 
easier to correct. THIN, although attractively priced, was rejected because 
of pending legal action against Mosaic (the manufacturer) by Lotus Development 
Corporation and the fact that the benchmark demonstrated THIN to be 
significantly slower. 



6-9 



6.3 WORD PROCESSOR 

6.3.1 RECOMMENDED WORD PROCESSOR 

The recommended word processor for inclusion in TUNS is WordPerfect from 
Satellite Software International. The GSA cost for Version 4.2 is $173.00. 

6.3.2 RATIONALE 

This section describes the evaluation method used and the rationale for 
recommending WordPerfect. 

Word processing capabilities for TUNS were defined based on the 
anticipated TUNS word processing activities and a survey of TU sites. The 
features required for word processing software, as described in the TUNS FRD, 
include: 

o menu and command driven; 

o help screens; 

o save edited files, unlimited document size; 

o block moves; 

o insert/overwrite; 

o cursor movement: character, word, screen, begin, end; 

o deletes: character, word, screen, sentence, block; 

o boilerplate; 

o underlining, boldface; 

o superscripts and subscripts; 

o horizontal and vertical scrolling; 

o search and replace; 

o multiple columns; 

o index, table of contents; 

o headers, footers; 

o paginate, repaginate; 

o left/right justified text; 

o decimal tabs; 



6-10 



o variable margins; 

o automatic centering; 

o automatic indentation; 

o automatic reformatting; 

o insert printer control codes; 

o insert printer stop codes; 

o printer interrupt; 

o pause for text entry; and 

o scientific notation. 

In developing the evaluation criteria and weighting factors for word 
processing software, particular emphasis was placed on the word processor's 
ability to satisfy the required features and on its ease of use. Five word 
processing packages were selected for evaluation, based on the Software Digest 
ratings for word processor ease of use and versatility: Microsoft Word, 
Version 3; Samna Word III, Version 2.10; WordStar, Version 3.31; WordPerfect, 
Version 4.2; and Leading Edge Word Processing, Version 1.3a. 

Each package was evaluated on seven factors: 

o number of required features, as identified in the TUNS FRD; 

o ease of use for the experienced user, partially determined by the 

number of keystrokes required for a given operation; 
o organization, understandabi lity, and completeness of the 

documentation; 
o ease of learning; 
o speed (the timed benchmarks); 
o availability at TU sites; and 
o cost of the software. 



6-11 



The evaluation results for required features and speed are detailed in 
Appendix I. The following table summarizes all the evaluation results: 



POINTS 




HORD 


WORD 


LEADING 


MICROSOFT 


POSSIBLE 


SAMNA 


PERFECT 


STAR 


EDGE 


WORD 


45 


39 


44 


32 


39 


42 


20 





18 


12 


7 


19 


15 


10 


12 


13 


10 


13 


10 


5 


8 


9 


8 


7 


5 





5 


4 


4 


5 


3 





2 


3 





1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 



FACTOR 

Required features 

Ease of use 

Documentation 

Ease of learning 

Speed 

Site availability 

Cost 



TOTAL 100 55 90 74 70 88 



TABLE 6-5: WORD PROCESSING EVALUATION SUMMARY 



6-12 



WordPerfect is recommended as the word processing software for TUNS. 
WordPerfect is designed for business applications and comes bundled with mail 
merge, four-function math, proof-reading, and programmable macro 
capabilities. It has a wide range of formatting features and special text 
options. Other features include independent on-screen columns as well as 
automatic creation of index and table of contents. WordPerfect has 98% of the 
features required by TUNS. It is command driven and makes extensive use of 
the function keys. The software uses a keyboard template instead of a menu to 
aid users in performing the desired operation. Software Digest rated 
WordPerfect's performance and versatility as excellent. Although the 
evaluation scores for WordPerfect and Microsoft Word show only a two point 
difference, the evaluation team highly recommends WordPerfect because the 
evaluation team found it much easier to use WordPerfect's ACSII-to-document 
transfer features. This capability is a mandatory technical requirement (as 
specified in Section 2.3), because of the need for information transfer 
between the various TUNS sites. 

6.3.3 ALTERNATIVE 

Microsoft Word is recommended as the alternate word processing software 
for TUNS. Word is menu driven, which makes it easy to learn. In addition, 
Word contains 91% of the required capabilities. Although the evaluation team 
rated Word highly, the team found fault with Word in two areas. First, the 
team felt that the explanations and directions in the manual were not as clear 
as they should be. More importantly, although industry evaluations indicate 
that the capability is present, attempts to transfer a Word document file to 
ASCII format demonstrated that this requisite capability is laborious to use. 

WordStar, although widely available at TU sites (both the CP/M and DOS 
versions), is not recommended for inclusion in TUNS. This recommendation is 
based on three critical factors. First, WordStar files are not easily 
transformed into ASCII format, and so are more difficult to exchange with 
other TU users. In addition, WordStar documents, when viewed on the screen, 
are significantly different from what is printed on paper. Third, when 
reformatting text, each paragraph must be reformatted individually, which is 
time consuming. While many functions are possible with WordStar, the 
evaluation team felt that WordStar performed these operations more awkwardly 
than WordPerfect and Word. 



6-13 



Mul timate, which emulates hang's dedicated word processor, i_s not 
recommended for inclusion in TUNS. Because preliminary analysis reveals 
several problems, Multimate was not evaluated in-depth. The ASCII to 
Multimate conversion is the principal reason for elimination. When a document 
is converted from ASCII to Multimate, most of the formatting functions are 
lost; as a result, the user is required to perform extensive edits. In 
addition, Software Digest's timed benchmark tests indicate that Multimate 
requires approximately three (3) times as long as WordPerfect to perform 
standard operations, and almost twice as long as Microsoft Word. Multimate 
also limits the number of lines in the document, and in a block move. Most 
other word processors, including WordPerfect and Word are limited only by disk 
capacity. 

6.4 BACKUP AND ARCHIVING 

6.4.1 RECOMMENDED BACKUP AND ARCHIVING SOFTWARE 

The software package recommended for backup of files on the local hard 
disk is Back-It by Gazalle Systems in Provo, Utah. This package sells for 
approximately $80 (commercial price). Volume purchase agreements and/or site 
licensing agreements are available through negotiation with the supplier. 

Archiving software will consist of custom software developed by ISN, due 
to the requirements for maintaining logical relationships between the data, as 
discussed in Section 4.4. 



6-14 



6.4.2 RATIONALE 

Based on a literature search, five backup packages were selected for 
evaluation: Back-It; DSBACKUP+; Fastback; Corefast; and Intelligent Backup. 
The performance evaluation was based on data contained in Software Digest and 
PC Magazine . The results are summarized in the following table. 



FACTOR 

Ease of use 

Error handling 

Speed 

Ease of learning 

Functionality 

Cost 

TOTAL 



POINTS 
POSSIBLE 

25 
25 
20 
15 
10 
5 



BACK- IT DSBACKUP+ FASTBACK 



100 



23 

17 
15 
11 
7 
_5 
78 



22 

17 

11 

13 

8 

5 



76 



16 

20 

20 

8 

6 

__L 

71 





INTELL 


COREFAST 


BACKUP 


14 


17 


20 


20 


14 


9 


9 


11 


8 


8 


2 


2 


67 


67 



TABLE 6-6: BACKUP SOFTWARE EVALUATION SUMMARY 

Back-It is a menu-driven package that provides the user with the option to 
backup all files on a disk, backup all files that have been edited or created 
since the last backup, backup files based on a wildcard criteria, or backup 
all files in a specified directory. In a benchmark test of backup software 
performed by Software Digest and published in their March 1987 issue, Back-It 
was rated the best overall package when evaluated on ease of learning, ease of 
use, error handling, performance, and versatility. An excellent feature of 
Back-It is the software's ability to estimate the number of disks required to 
perform the backup, and to format the disks during the backup process. 
Formatting the disks during the backup process eliminates a time consuming 
step which must be performed in the standard DOS backup procedure. 



6-1 r i 



The principal strengths of Back-It are the following: 

o fast backup of revised files; 

o ease of restoring from the backup disk on either selective files or 

wildcard criteria; 

o fast disk formatting during single directory backup; 

o excellent manual and reference materials; 

o warning of file overwrite during backup; 

o automatic formatting of floppy disks; 

o automatic switching between two destination drives; 

o estimate of the number of floppy disketts required; and 

o records backup statistical data. 

Back-It has three principal weaknesses. 

o File version cannot be selected during restoration. 

o Backup to a partially filled disk results in loss of data on the disk. 

o Error identification and recovery instructions could be improved. 

6.4.3 ALTERNATIVES 

The alternative to Back-It is the software package DSBACKUP+. This 
package is marketed by Design Software, Inc. from Chicago, Illinois and sells 
commercially for approximately $80. This package has many of the same 
features as Back-It. In addition, it can backup to a partially filled disk 
and will allow a choice of file version during restoration. Its major 
weaknesses are that it does not warn the user of a file overwrite, does not 
record backup statistics, and does not display the most recent backup 

information. In the benchmark performed by the Software Digest , the 

performance of DSBACKUP+ was significantly less than Back-It. 

6.5 COMMUNICATIONS 

6.5.1 RECOMMENDED COMMUNICATIONS SOFTHARE 

The recommended communications software is HyperAccess from Hilgraene, 
Inc. This software is available at the GSA cost of $92. 



6-16 



6.5.2 RATIONALE 

Based on a literature search, five communications packages were selected 
for evaluation: HyperAccess, Crosstalk XVI, Omniterm 2, Microsoft Access, and 
Smartcom II. The performance evaluation was based on data contained in 
Software Digest and PC Magazine . The results are summarized in the following 
table. 





POINTS 


HYPER- 






MICROSOFT 


SMART- 


FACTOR 


POSSIBLE 


ACCESS 


CROSSTALK 


OMNITERM 


ACCESS 


COM II 


Ease of use 


25 


19 


20 


21 


22 


17 


Error handling 


25 


17 


16 


15 


20 


17 


Speed 


20 


16 


16 


13 


4 


9 


Ease of learning 


15 


10 


10 


12 


12 


9 


Functionality 


10 


7 


7 


5 


7 


5 


Cost 


5 


4 


2 


5 


1 


4 


TOTAL 


100 


73 


71 


71 


66 


61 



TABLE 6-7: COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE EVALUATION SUMMARY 

The HyperAccess communications software offers the user a full range of 
communications options at a moderate price. The package is extremely 
versatile, yet offers a transmission speed only slightly below Crosstalk. The 
features of HyperAccess which put it beyond the standard list of FRD 
requirements are: 

o baud rates up to 19.2 Kb bits per second; 

o asynchronous protocols with error checking of CRC XMODEM, Checksum 

XMODEM, and Kermit; 

o unattended transmission of data at a special time; 

o remote/unattended operations with logging of calls; 

o exiting program without losing the carrier; 

o on-line file handling; and 

o switching from voice to data and vice versa. 



6-17 



The HyperAccess communications package will serve the novice user as 
easily as the user experienced in transferring data using various protocols. 
The HyperAccess package offers a tutorial disk that walks the beginner through 
the basics of communications. However, menu screens are available which can 
also guide the novice user through the communications setup process without 
using the tutorial or the reference manual. 

For the experienced user, HyperAccess offers a macro/programming 

capability which includes user defined command files, assigning macros to a 

log, batch operation from DOS, wait for a condition, and logic commands such 
as "if-then-else." 

The overall features of HyperAccess which make it the recommended software 
are the unattended operation functions, the availability of three transmission 
protocols, its versatility of acceptable hardware, and its ease of use for 
novice users. HyperAccess offers options which will be significant in Phase 
II development. 

6.5.3 ALTERNATIVES 

The recommended alternative is Crosstalk XVI. The performance rating of 
Crosstalk exceeds that of all the packages except HyperAccess; however, 
Crosstalk is not as easy to learn for the novice user and offers fewer 
features than HyperAccess. If users have or intend to purchase a Hayes 
internal modem which includes the Smartcom II software, or if they currently 
have either Crosstalk XVI or Smartcom II, they should use these packages for 
communications. If users intend to purchase communications software, the 
preferred package is HyperAccess. 

6.6 UTILITIES/MISCELLANEOUS 

6.6.1 RECOMMENDED UTILITIES AND MISCELLANEOUS SOFTHARE 

The following utility software is recommended for use within TUNS: 

o Sidekick by Borland International at a cost of $54; 
o Norton Utilities by Norton Software at a cost of $49; 



6-18 



o Sideways by FUNK, Inc. at $36; and 

o FilePath, ScreenSave, and KeyBuffer from bulletin boards for a total 
of $150. 

6.6.2 RATIONALE 

The Sidekick software will be used within TUNS to provide the office 
calendar and the personal calendar and notepad features. 

One copy of Norton Utilities is required for the system administrator's 

use in assisting the end-users in the event of deletion or loss of their 

personal files. Norton Utilities cannot be used on the file server to perform 
these recovery operations. 

Sideways is a software package which assists in the printing of large 
spreadsheets. A copy of this software should be made available at every 
workstation. 

The FilePath software aids in the location of data files in a multi-level, 
multi-directory system. This software is used in conjunction with the DOS 
PATH command. 

The ScreenSave utility is used to blank the monitor if no activity is 
performed within a specified period of time. This utility reduces the chance 
that data will be burned into the screen over a period of time. 

The KeyBuffer utility increases the size of the input buffer and permits 
type-ahead in excess of that under standard DOS conditions. 

The only utility software which is required by TUNS is Sidekick; however, 
ISN strongly recommends the procurement of the additional software which will 
aid end-users in their use of the PC. 



6-19 



SECTION 7.0 
ELECTRONIC MAIL 



7.1 ELECTRONIC MAIL REQUIREMENTS 

One goal of TUNS is to facilitate better communications between the 
members of the TU family. Electronic mail will be used as one of the 
methodologies to accomplish this goal. The electronic mail requirements as 
identified in the FRD include the following: 

o TUNS electronic mail must allow the user to compose the body of a 
message using either a local word processor or in the electronic mail 
system itself. A line editor must be available for use with messages 
prepared within the electronic mail system. Text data files prepared 
by the word processor must be capable of being incorporated into the 
body of the message. 

o Electronic mail must provide the user with the ability to create a 
permanent file of outgoing messages. 

o The user must be able to file incoming messages by user requirements 
(e.g., subject, sender, date). 

o The sender must be able to identify a single recipient, multiple 
recipients, and a "group" mailcode consisting of multiple mail 
identification codes but addressed as one unit. 

o The electronic mail system must provide the following features: to, 
from, carbon copies, receipt requested, date, subject, forward, 
respond, message retrieval and message purge by criteria such as 
date, sender, subject, number, and unread/unpurged. 

o The electronic mail system must maintain messages in such a manner 
that all messages are secure and confidential except to those 
individuals listed as to, from, or carbon copies. 



7-1 



o The electronic mail system should inform the user at sign-on or at 
appropriate times during the session if new mail exists for him. 

7.2 RECOMMENDED ELECTRONIC MAIL SYSTEM 

In January, 1987, ISN prepared a study of electronic mail alternatives and 
presented it to the NASA TU Division in a memorandum (see Appendix J). The 
results of this study will be used as a basis for the electronic mail 
recommendation contained in this document. 

The recommended electronic mail for use in TUNS is the NASAMAIL system 

currently available throughout NASA. The NASAMAIL system is equivalent to the 

US Sprint TELEMAIL system described in the study. The NASAMAIL operates on 

the NASA PSCN communications network and is available at all the TU offices 
and IACs in the NASA community. 

Table 7-1 presents a comparison chart of the electronic mail features 
provided by the six major commercial electronic mail vendors and by Lawrence 
Livermore National Laboratories, the current supplier of TU electronic mail. 
As shown by the chart, TELEMAIL provides all the features required by TUNS. 

Table 7-2 presents a cost comparison matrix of the electronic mail vendors 
based on a transmission rate of 7,200 characters per hour. As indicated by 
the matrix, TELEMAIL has the lowest cost of the commercial vendors. NASAMAIL 
is the standard electronic mail system within NASA, and the cost of NASAMAIL 
is an overhead budget item. 

An additional factor in the selection of NASAMAIL as the electronic mail 
supplier is its use of the PSCN network. The PSCN network provides an existing 
communications network which not only permits access to the entire TU family, 
but can be used to access other networks such as Defense Data Network and the 
ARPA network. 



7-2 





MCI MAIL 


TELEMA1L 


ONTYME 


DIALCOM 


EASYLINK 


CRAPHNI? 


LLNL 


SERVICE CATEGORIES 
















BASIC 


X 


X 




X 








ADVANCED 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


ADDRESSEE 
















ELECTRONIC ADDRESS 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


HAXDCOPY ADDRESS 


X 


X 






X 


X 




TELEX TERMINAL 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 




HELP CATEGORIES 
















ON LINE 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


HOT LINE KESSACE 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




CUSTOMER SUPPORT (2Ahr«) 


12 


X 


X 


12 


X 


X 


8 


ON LINE INFORMATION 
















INTERNATIONAL RATES 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 




LOCAL PHONE NUMBERS 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 




NUMBER OF MESSAGES SENT 




X 












USER DIRECTORIES 


X 


X 






X 


X 


X 


BATE /TIME 




X 


X 






X 


X 


SPILLING CHECKER 




X 




X 








MESSAGE RETRIEVAL 
















SEARCH BY DATE 


X 


X 




X 








SEARCH BY SUBJECT 


X 


X 




X 








READ BY NUMBER 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




READ BY DATE 


X 


X 




X 






X 


READ ALL 


X 


X 


X 


X 








READ BY SUBJECT 


X 


X 




X 








UNREAD 




X 












KESSACE PURGE 
















BY NUMBER 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 


PROM USERNAME 




X 




X 








BY DATE 




X 




X 








BY SUBJECT 




X 




X 








UNPURCE 




X 




X 








SESSAGE ANSVERINC 
















ANSWER ALL 


X 


X 






X 






ANSWER MESSAGE NUMBER 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


MESSAGE FORWARDING 
















TO USER LIST 


X 


X 








X 


X 


BY DATE 




X 












FROM USERNAME 


X 


X 












BY MESSAGE NUMBER 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 


X 


WITH APPENDED COMMENTS 


X 


X 


' 


X 






X 


BY SUBJECT 




X 




X 




X 




KESSACE PILING 
















BY USERNAME 




X 


X 


X 








BY MESSACE NUMBER 


X 


X 




X 


X 




X 


BY DATE 




X 




X 








REMOVE ALL 


X 


X 




X 








REMOVE BY MESSACE NUMBER 


X 


X 




X 


X 




X 


SEND MAIL 
















BY DATE 




X 




X 


X 






REPEAT SEND BY COUNT 




X 


X 




X 






REPEAT SEND BY DATE/TIME 




X 


X 




X 






RETURN RECEIPT REQUEST 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 


SEND REGISTERED 




X 




X 








SEND URCENT 


X 


X 




X 




X 




SEND PRIVATE 




X 




X 








CANCEL BIND 




X 




X 








BLIND COPT 








X 


X 






IULLETIR BOARD 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 






JSERCODE STURCTURE 
















HIERARCHICAL 




X 


X 










LOW LEVEL QUALIFIER 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


PASSWORD MAINTENANCE 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 


:OKMAND DRIVEN 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


KENU DRIVEN 


X 


X 




X 








UNARY FILE TRANSFER 


X 


X 


X 


X 








SATEWAY 




X 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 



TABLE 7-1 COMPARISON OF ELECTRONIC MAIL FEATURES 

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7-4 



7.3 ALTERNATIVE ELECTRONIC MAIL SYSTEM 

The primary alternative to the NASAMAIL is the commercially available 
TELEMAIL. The cost is the lowest of the commercial vendors; however, access 
would be limited to the TU family and other subscribers of TELEMAIL. Use of 
TELEMAIL would not allow the NASA TU community to communicate directly with 
other members of the NASA research and development community. 

The second alternative to NASAMAIL is DIALCOM. DIALCOM provides the 
majority of the features needed by TUNS, but again is limited to those 
subscribers of DIALCOM. The cost of DIALCOM is estimated to be $10 per 
message hour higher than TELEMAIL. 



7-5 



APPENDIX A 
.WORKSTATION fl tPVFY 



HORKSTATION SIIRVFY 



In order to obtain a consistent response among the workstation vendors, a 
minimum workstation configuration was defined based on the TUNS requirements. 
Seven vendors were then surveyed via telephone and asked to respond with a GSA 
price, if available, for the minimum configuration and to list options and 
other capabilities of the specified model. The results of the survey are 
presented in this appendix. 



A-l 



WORKSTATION 



MANUFACTURER: AT & T 



MODEL: 6300 PLUS 



VENDOR: COMPUTERLAND 

CPU: 80286 

STANDARD CONFIGURATION 

o 640 Kb RAM 

o 1 high capacity floppy disk 

o 1 keyboard 

o 1 20 Mb hard disk 

o 4 16-bit empty slots 

o 1 serial port 

o 1 parallel port 



OPTIONS/CAPACITIES 
o Maximum RAM: 2 Mb 

Maximum hard disk capacity available: 80 Mb 

Clock speed 6 MHz, not software-selectable 

3.2 current version of MS-DOS available 

I/O controller is an 8 bit board, 16-bit boards not IBM compatible 



o 
o 
o 
o 



Standard Configuraton 



GSA COST: $2.449 



A-2 



WORKSTATION 
MANUFACTURER: COMPAQ MODEL: 286-20. 286-40 

VENDOR: COMPUTERLAND 

CPU: 80286 

STANDARD CONFIGURATION 

o 640 Kb RAM 

o 1 high capacity floppy disk 

o 1 keyboard 

o 1 20 Mb hard disk 

o 4 16-bit empty slots 

o No serial port 

o No parallel port 

OPTIONS/CAPACITIES 
o Maximum RAM: 1 Mb 

o Maximum hard disk capacity available: 40 Mb 
o Clock speed 8 MHz, is software-selectable 
o 3.2 current version of MS-DOS available 

Standard Configuration TUNS Configuration 

GSA COST $2.750 GSA COST: $3.349 Model 286-40 



A-3 



WORKSTATION 

MANUFACTURER: COMPAQ MODEL: 286-20. 2fif>-4n 

VENDOR: ENTRE COMPUTER CENTER 

CPU: 80286 

STANDARD CONFIGURATION 

o 640 Kb RAM 

o 1 high capacity floppy disk 

o 1 keyboard 

o 1 20 Mb hard disk 

o 8 16-bit empty slots 

o 1 serial port 

o 1 parallel port 

OPTIONS/CAPACITIES 
o Maximum RAM: 8 Mb 

o Maximum hard disk capacity available: 130 Mb 
o Clock speed 8 MHz, is software-selectable 
o 3.1 current version of MS-DOS available 

Standard Configuration TUNS configuration 

GSA COST: 12,525 GSA COST: $3.119 Model 286-40 



A-4 



WORKSTATION 

MANUFACTURER: COMPAQ MODEL: 286-20. 286-40 

VENDOR: BUSINESSLAND 

CPU: 80286 

STANDARD CONFIGURATION 

640 Kb RAM 

o 1 high capacity floppy disk 

o 1 keyboard 

o 1 20 Mb hard disk 

o 16-bit empty slots 

o 1 serial port 

o 1 parallel port 

OPTIONS/CAPACITIES 
o Maximum RAM: 8 Mb 

o Maximum hard disk capacity available: 70 Mb 
o Clock speed 8 MHz & 6 MHz, is software-selectable 
o 3.1 current version of MS-DOS available 

Standard Configuration TUNS Configuration 

GSA COST: $2.599 GSA COST: $3.249 Model 286-40 



A-5 



HORKSTATION 
MANUFACTURER: COMPAQ M0DEL: 386 _ 4Q 

VENDOR: BUSINESSLAND 
CPU: 80386 

STANDARD CONFIGURATION 

o 1 Mb RAM 

o 1 high capacity floppy disk 

o 1 keyboard 

o 1 40 Mb hard disk 

o At least 1 32-bit empty slot 

o 1 serial port 

o 1 parallel port 

OPTIONS/CAPACITIES 
o Maximum RAM: 14 Mb 

o Maximum hard disk capacity available: 130 Mb 
o Clock speed 16 MHz, is software-selectable 
o 3.1 current version of MS-DOS available 

Standard configuration 

GSA COST: $4.224 



A-6 



WORKSTATION 

MANUFACTURER: COMPAQ MODEL: 386-40 

VENDOR: ENTRE COMPUTER CENTER 

CPU: 80386 

STANDARD CONFIGURATION 

1 Mb RAM 

o 1 high capacity floppy disk 

o 1 keyboard 

o 1 40 Mb hard disk 

o 6 32-bit empty slots 

o 1 serial port 

o 1 parallel port 

OPTIONS/CAPACITIES 

o Maximum RAM: 14 Mb 

o Maximum hard disk capacity available: 130 Mb 
o Clock speed 16 MHz, is software-selectable 
o 3.1 current version of MS-DOS available 

Standard Configuration 

GSA COST: $4.224 



A-7 



WORKSTATION 
MANUFACTURER: IBM M0DEL: pj 

VENDOR: THE SOFTWARE STORE 

CPU: 80286 

STANDARD CONFIGURATION 

512 Kb RAM 

o 1 high capacity floppy disk 

o 1 keyboard 

o 1 30 Mb hard disk 

o 7 16-bit empty slots 

o No serial port 

o No parallel port 

OPTIONS/CAPACITIES 
o Maximum RAM: 2 Mb 

o Maximum hard disk capacity available: 60 Mb 
o Clock speed 6 MHz and 8 MHz, not software-selectable 
o 3.1 current version of MS-DOS available 

Standard Configuration TUNS Configuration 

Government COST: $2,995 Government COST: $3.395 

NOTE: IBM Product Centers are the only vendors authorized to provide GSA 
prices. 



A-8 



WORKSTATION 

MANUFACTURER: IBM MODEL: AJ 

VENDOR: IBM Product Center 

CPU: 80286 

STANDARD CONFIGURATION 

640 Kb RAM 

o 1 high capacity floppy disk 

o 1 keyboard 

o 1 30 Mb hard disk 

o 4 16-bit empty slots 

o 1 serial port 

o 1 parallel port 

OPTIONS/CAPACITIES 

o Maximum RAM: 10.5 Mb 

o Maximum hard disk capacity available: 61.2 Mb 
o Clock speed 8 MHz, not software-selectable 
o 3.2 current version of MS-DOS available 

TUNS Configuration 
GSA PRICE: $3.707 

NOTE: IBM Product Centers are the only vendors authorized to provide GSA 
prices. 



A-9 



WORKSTATION 

MANUFACTURER: KAYPRO MODEL: 386 

VENDOR: CCI 

CPU: 80386 

STANDARD CONFIGURATION 

o 640 Kb RAM 

o 1 high capacity floppy disk 

o 1 keyboard 

o 1 20 Mb hard disk 

o 6 32-bit empty slot 

o No serial port 

o No paral lei port 

OPTIONS/CAPACITIES 
o Maximum RAM: 16 Mb 

o Maximum hard disk capacity available: 660 Mb 
o Clock speed 16 MHz, not software-selectable 
o 3.2 current version of MS-DOS available 

Standard Configuration 

LIST PRICE: $5,770 

NOTE: Vendor not on GSA schedule. 



A-10 



WORKSTATION 

MANUFACTURER: KAYPRO MODEL: 286 

VENDOR: CCI 

CPU: 80286 

STANDARD CONFIGURATION 

o 640 Kb RAM 

o 1 high capacity floppy disk 

o 1 keyboard 

o 1 20 Mb hard disk 

o 4 16-bit empty slots 

o No serial port 

o No parallel port 

o Monochrome monitor 

o Monochrome monitor card 

OPTIONS/CAPACITIES 
o Maximum RAM: 3 Mb 

o Maximum hard disk capacity available: 1 Mb 
o Clock speed 8 MHz 
o 3.2 current version of MS-DOS available 

Standard Configuration 

LIST PRICE: $2,901 

NOTE: Vendor not on GSA schedule. 



A-ll 



WORKSTATION 
MANUFACTURER: RADIO SHACK MODEL: Tandy 3000 

VENDOR: Radio Shack 
CPU: 80286 

STANDARD CONFIGURATION 

o MS DOS 3.1 or later version 

o 512 Kb RAM 

o 1 keyboard 

o 1 20 Mb hard disk 

o 1 1.2 Mb floppy disk 

o 7 empty slots 

o 1 serial port 

o 1 parallel port 

Standard Configuration 

GSA PRICE: $2,879.20 



A-12 



WORKSTATION 

MANUFACTURER: RADIO SHACK MODEL: Tandy 3000 

VENDOR: Radio Shack 

CPU: 80286 

STANDARD CONFIGURATION 

o MS DOS 3.1 or later version 

o 640 Kb RAM 

o 1 keyboard 

o 1 40 Mb hard disk 

o 1 1.2 Mb floDD.y disk 

o 7 empty slots 

o 1 serial port 

o 1 parallel port 

OPTIONS/CAPACITIES 

o 80 Mb (2 40 Mb hard disks) 

Standard Configuration 

GSA PRICE: $3,439.20 



A-13 



WORKSTATION 
MANUFACTURER: ZENITH MODEL: ZF-248-81, ZW-248-84 

VENDOR: HEATH-ZENITH COMPUTERS 
CPU: 80286 

STANDARD CONFIGURATION 

o 512 Kb RAM 

o 1 high capacity floppy disk 

o 1 keyboard 

o 1 10 Mb hard disk 

o 7 32-bit empty slots 

o 1 serial port 

o 1 parallel port 

OPTIONS/CAPACITIES 

o Maximum RAM: 1 .2 Mb 

o Maximum hard disk capacity available: 40 Mb 
o Clock speed 8 MHz, not software-selectable 
o 3.2 current version of MS-DOS available 

Standard Configuration TUNS Configuration 

GSA COST: $1,709 GSA COST: $3,248 



A-14 



APPENDIX B 
PRINTER SURVEY 



PRINTER SURVEY 



Based on the TUNS functional and technical requirements, ISN conducted a 
survey of the dot-matrix, daisy-wheel, and laser printers currently available 
on the market. Five dot-matrix, six daisy-wheel, five laser, and two 
combination dot-matrix/daisy-wheel printers were selected for further 
evaluation. Information about these eighteen printers is presented in this 
appendix. Information from vendors was supplemented by published evaluation 
reports, including PC Magazine 's special issue on printers, November 11, 1986. 



B-l 



DOT-MATRIX PRINTER 



MANUFACTURER: C.ITOH ELECTRONICS, INC. 



MODEL: C-315 XP 



PAPER HANDLING 
o 15 1/2 inches maximum paper width 

PRINTING CHARACTERISTICS 
o Near letter quality 
o Graphics capability 
o Resolution (HxV): 240 x 216 dpi 
o Print speed (cps): 

Normal mode 300 
NLQ mode 30 
o 9 pin 



SOFTWARE CONTROL CAPABILITIES 

o Page length 

o Line length 

o Vertical tab 

o Horizontal tab 

o Underline 

o Superscript/subscript 

o Bold 

o Line spacing per inch 



INTERFACE CHARACTERISTICS 
o Printer buffering available 

Buffer size 2 Kb standard, expandable to 10 Kb 
o Centronics parallel interface 
o Serial interface available 

OTHER FEATURES 

o IBM Proprinter compatibility 
o Front-panel controls 

LIST PRICE: $819 



B-2 



DOT-MATRIX PRINTER 



MANUFACTURER: EPSON AMERICA INC. 



MODEL: EPSON FX-286e 



PAPER HANDLING 
o 16 1/4 inches maximum paper width 

PRINTING CHARACTERISTICS 
o Near letter quality 
o Graphics capability 
o Resolution (HxV): 240 x 60 dpi 
o Print speed (cps): 

Normal mode 216 

NLQ mode 40 

INTERFACE CHARACTERISTICS 
o Printer buffering available 

Buffer size 8 Kb 
o Centronics parallel interface 
o 9 pin 



SOFTWARE CONTROL CAPABILITIES 

o Page length 

o Vertical tab 

o Horizontal tab 

o Underline 

o Superscript/subscript 

o Bold 

o Italic 

o Double strike 

o Proportional spacing 

o Justified lines 

o Centered lines 

o Variable line heights 

o Extended/condensed 

o Correspondence quality 



OTHER FEATURES 
o 10 different graphics modes 



LIST PRICE: $799 



GSA COST: $527 



B-3 



DOT-MATRIX PRINTER 



MANUFACTURER: EPSON AMERICA TNP 



MODEL: EPSON LO-innn 



PAPER HANDLING 
o 16 1/4 inches maximum paper width 

PRINTING CHARACTERISTICS 
o Near letter quality 
Bidirectional printing 
Graphics capability 
Resolution (HxV): 360 X 60 
Print speed (cps): 
Normal mode 180 
NLQ mode 52 
24 pins 



o 
o 
o 
o 



SOFTWARE CONTROL CAPABILITIES 
o Page length 
Line length 
Vertical tab 
Horizontal tab 
Underline 

Superscript/subscript 

Bold 

Italic 

Double strike 

Identical to the Diablo 630, 

Epson, IBM 5051 printers 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



INTERFACE CHARACTERISTICS 
o Centronics parallel interface 
o Serial interface available 
o Printer buffering available 
Buffer size 7 Kb 



LIST PRICE: Si. 095 



GSA COST: $722 



B-4 



DOT-MATRIX PRINTER 



MANUFACTURER: OKI DATA 



MODEL: MICROLINE 193 Plus 



PAPER HANDLING 
o 16 1/4 inches maximum paper width 

PRINTING CHARACTERISTICS 
o Near letter quality 
o Bidirectional printing 
o Graphics capability 
o Resolution (HxV): 288 x 144 
o Print speed (cps): 

Normal mode 200 

NLQ mode 36 
o 9 pin 

INTERFACE CHARACTERISTICS 
o Centronics parallel interface 
o Serial interface available 
o Printer buffering available 
Buffer size: 8 Kb 



SOFTHARE CONTROL CAPABILITIES 

o Page length 

o Vertical tab 

o Horizontal tab 

o Underline 

o Superscript/subscript 

o Bold 

o Italic 

o Compressed & wide type 

o Proportional spacing 

o Justified lines 

o Centered lines 

o Variable line heights 

o Identical to the IBM 5051 
printer 



OTHER FEATURES 
o Paper feed either underneath or behind 

o Okifont - utility which allows you to pick from several different 
fonts or create your own. 

LIST PRICE: $225 



B-5 



DOT-MATRIX PRINTER 



MANUFACTURER: PANASONIC CO MPUTER PRODUCTS niv MODEL: PANASONIC KX-P1SQR 



PAPER HANDLING 
o 17 inches maximum paper width 

PRINTING CHARACTERISTICS 
o Near letter quality 
o Bidirectional printing 
o Graphics capability 
o Resolution (HxV): 240 x 72 
o Print speed (cps): 

Normal mode 240 

NLQ mode 42 
o 9 pin 

INTERFACE CHARACTERISTICS 
o Centronics parallel interface 
o Serial interface available 
o Printer buffering available 
Buffer size: 1 Kb 



SOFTHARE CONTROL CAPABILITIES 

o Page length 

o Vertical tab 

o Horizontal tab 

o Underline 

o Superscript/subscript 

o Bold 

o Double strike 

o Centered lines 

o Proportional spacing 

o Justified lines 

o Centered lines 

o Variable line heights 

o Extended/condensed 

o Identical to the Epson, 
IBM 5152 printers 



LIST PRICE: $249. 



B-6 



DAISY-HHEEL PRINTER 
MANUFACTURER: BROTHER INTERNATIONAL CORP. MODEL: HR-35 



PAPER HANDLING 
o 8 1/2 inches maximum paper width 

PRINTING CHARACTERISTICS 
o Bidirectional printing 
o Print speed (cps) 33 

INTERFACE CHARACTERISTICS 
o Centronics parallel interface 
o Serial interface available 
o Printer buffering available: 
Buffer size 7 Kb 

SOFTWARE CONTROL CAPABILITIES 

o Vertical tab 

o Horizontal tab 

o Underline 

o Superscript/subscript 

o Bold 

o Identical to the Diablo printer 

LIST PRICE: $7£0. 



B-7 



DAISY-WHEEL PRINTER 
MANUFACTURER: DIABLO MODEL: £35 

PAPER HANDLING 
o 16 1/2 inches maximum paper width 

PRINTING CHARACTERISTICS 
o Bidirectional printing 
o Print speed (cps) 55 

INTERFACE CHARACTERISTICS 
o Centronics parallel interface 
o Serial interface available 
o Printer buffering available 

SOFTWARE CONTROL CAPABILITIES 
o Vertical tab 
o Horizontal tab 
o Underline 

o Superscript/subscript 
o Bold 

LIST PRICE: $1,149 GOVERNMENT PRICE: $£5J 



B-8 



DAISY-WHEEL PRINTER 



MANUFACTURER: DIABLO 



MODEL: D8QIF 



PAPER HANDLING 
o 15 1/4 inches maximum paper width 

PRINTING CHARACTERISTICS 
o Bidirectional printing 
o Print speed (cps) 80 

INTERFACE CHARACTERISTICS 
o Printer buffering available 
Buffer size 1.5 Kb 

SOFTWARE CONTROL CAPABILITIES 
o Vertical tab 
o Horizontal tab 
o Underline 

o Superscript/subscript 
o Bold 



LIST PRICE: $1.995 



GOVERNMENT PRICE: $1.523 



B-9 



DAISY-WHEEL PRINTER 
MANUFACTURER: ITT QUME CORP MODEL: OUME LETTER PRO PI IK 

PAPER HANDLING 
o 12 inches maximum paper width 

PRINTING CHARACTERISTICS 
o Bidirectional printing 
o Print speed (cps) 45 

INTERFACE CHARACTERISTICS 
o Centronics parallel interface 
o Serial interface available 
o Printer buffering available 
Buffer size: 25 Kb 

SOFTWARE CONTROL CAPABILITIES 

o Page length 

o Vertical tab 

o Horizontal tab 

o Underline 

o Superscript/subscript 

o Bold 

o Double strike 

o Line spacing per inch 

o Identical to the Diablo 630 printer 

LIST PRICE: $M2 



B-10 



DAISY-WHEEL PRINTER 
MANUFACTURER: NE£ MODEL: 3.515 



PAPER HANDLING 
o 14 1/2 inches maximum paper width 

PRINTING CHARACTERISTICS 
o Bidirectional printing 
o Print speed (cps) 32 

SOFTWARE CONTROL CAPABILITIES 

o Vertical tab 

o Horizontal tab 

o Underline 

o Superscript/subscript 

o Bold 

o Identical to the Diablo printer 

LIST PRICE: 1£65 



B-ll 



DAISY-WHEEL PRINTER 
MANUFACTURER: OLYMPIA MODEL: ESN 1QQQ C 

PAPER HANDLING 
o 14 3/4 inches maximum paper width 

PRINTING CHARACTERISTICS 
o Bidirectional printing 
o Print speed (cps) 15 

INTERFACE CHARACTERISTICS 
o Centronics parallel interface 
o Serial interface available 
o Printer buffering available 
Buffer size: 2 Kb 

SOFTWARE CONTROL CAPABILITIES 

o Page length 

o Vertical tab 

o Horizontal tab 

o Underline 

o Superscript/subscript 

o Bold 

o Double strike 

o Justified line 

o Centered line 

o Line spacing per inch 

o Identical to the Diablo 630 printer 

LIST PRICE: 15J5 



B-12 



COMBINED DOT-MATRIX AND DAISY-WHEEL PRINTER 
MANUFACTURER: BROTHER INTERNATIONAL CORP. MODEL: TWINWRITER 5 



PAPER HANDLING 
o 15 1/4 inches maximum paper width 

PRINTING CHARACTERISTICS 
o Letter quality 
o Bidirectional printing 
o Graphics capability 
o Down-loading of fonts 
o Print speed (cps): 

Normal mode 140 

NLQ mode 54 

Daisy-wheel mode 36 

INTERFACE CHARACTERISTICS 
o Printer buffering available 
Buffer size: 3 Kb 

SOFTWARE CONTROL CAPABILITIES 

o Vertical tab 

o Horizontal tab 

o Underline 

o Bold 

o Italic 

o Double strike 

o Superscript/subscript 

o Extended/condensed 

o Identical to the Diablo 630, Epson printers 

LIST PRICE: Si. 295 



B-13 



COMBINED DOT-MATRIX AND DAISY-WHEEL PRINTER 
MANUFACTURER: FORTIS COMPUTER SYSTEMS MODEL: DH-45 

PAPER HANDLING 
o 17 inches maximum paper width 

PRINTING CHARACTERISTICS 
o Letter quality 
o Graphics capability 
o Print speed (cps): 

Normal mode 140 

Daisy-wheel mode 36 
o 9 pin 

SOFTWARE CONTROL CAPABILITIES 

o Page length 

o Vertical tab 

o Horizontal tab 

o Underline 

o Bold 

o Superscript/subscript 

OTHER FEATURES 
o 14 different fonts 

LIST PRICE: $1.295 



B-14 



LASER PRINTER 
MANUFACTURER: BLASER INDUSTRIES MODEL: THE BLASER 



PAPER HANDLING 
o 8 1/2 inches maximum paper width 

PRINTING CHARACTERISTICS 
o Graphics capability 
o Maximum 8 fonts per page 
o Print speed 8 pages per minute 

INTERFACE CHARACTERISTICS 
o Centronics parallel interface 
o Serial interface available 

SOFTWARE CONTROL CAPABILITIES 

o Page length 

o Vertical tab 

o Horizontal tab 

o Underline 

o Bold 

o Superscript/subscript 

o Line height 

o Compress 

o Line spacing per inch 

o Identical to the IBM Proprinter 

o Prints up to 256 copies of a document 

o Similar to the Hewlett-Packard Laserjet 

LIST PRICE: S2795 



B-15 



LASER PRINTER 



MANUFACTURER: HEWLETT-PACKARD 



MODEL: LASERJET SERIES II 



PAPER HANDLING 
o 8 1/2 inches maximum paper width 

PRINTING CHARACTERISTICS 
o Letter quality resolution: 

300 X 300 dpi 
o Graphics capabi lity 
o Forms capability 
o Forms overlay 
o Maximum 8 fonts per page 
o Down loading fonts 
o Print speed 8 pages per minute 

INTERFACE CHARACTERISTICS 
o Centronics parallel interface 
o Serial interface available 

SOFTWARE CONTROL CAPABILITIES 
o Vertical tab 
o Horizontal tab 
o Bold 
o Superscript/subscript 



LIST PRICE: $2,495 



GOVERNMENT PRICE: $1,795 



SUPPLIES: $119 per 4,000 pages 



B-16 



LASER PRINTER 
MANUFACTURER: HFHLETT-PACKARD MODEL: LASERJET 500 PLUS 



PAPER HANDLING 
o 8 1/2 inches maximum paper width 

PRINTING CHARACTERISTICS 
o Letter quality resolution: 

300 X 300 dpi 
o Graphics capability 
o Maximum 16 fonts per page 
o Down loading fonts 
o Print speed 8 pages per minute 

INTERFACE CHARACTERISTICS 
o Centronics parallel interface 
o Serial interface available 

SOFTWARE CONTROL CAPABILITIES 

o Page length 

o Vertical tab 

o Horizontal tab 

o Superscript/subscript 

o Bold 

o Line height 

o Canon engine 

o Identical to the Hewlett-Packard Laserjet and the Hewlett-Packard 

Laserjet Plus 
LIST PRICE: $4.995 



B-17 



LASER PRINTER 
MANUFACTURER: QKIDATA MODEL: LASERLINF fi 

PAPER HANDLING 
o 8 1/2 inchs maximum paper width 

PRINTING CHARACTERISTICS 
o Letter quality resolution: 

300 X 300 dpi 
o Graphics capability 
o Down loading fonts 
o Print speed 6 pages per minute 

INTERFACE CHARACTERISTICS 
o Centronics parallel interface 
o Serial interface available 
o Printer buffering available 
Buffer size: 272 Kb 

SOFTWARE CONTROL CAPABILITIES 

o Vertical tab 

o Horizontal tab 

o Superscript/subscript 

o Bold 

o Ricoh engine 

o 15 different fonts 

o H-P Laserjet compatible 

o Diablo, NEC, Qume, Epson, and IBM Graphics printer emulations 

o Includes software control program 

LIST PRICE: $1.995 



SUPPLIES: toner $29 per 1,000 pages 

drum/cartridge $199 per 10,000 pages 



B-18 



LASER PRINTER 
MANUFACTURER: QMS INCORPORATED MODEL: QMS KISS 



PAPER HANDLING 
o 8 1/2 inches maximum paper width 

PRINTING CHARACTERISTICS 
o Letter quality resolution: 

300 X 300 dpi 
o Graphics capability 
o Down loading fonts 
o Print speed 8 pages per minute 

INTERFACE CHARACTERISTICS 
o Centronics parallel interface 
o Serial interface available 
o Printer buffering available 
Buffer size: 128 Kb 

SOFTWARE CONTROL CAPABILITIES 

o Page length 

o Vertical tab 

o Horizontal tab 

o Underline 

o Superscript/subscript 

o Bold 

o Double strike 

o Canon engine 

o 12 different fonts 

o Diablo 630, Epson FX-80, Qume Sprint printer emulations 

LIST PRICE: $1.995 GOVERNMENT PRICE: $1,795 

SUPPLIES: $99 per 3,000 pages 



B-19 



APPENDIX C 
COMMUNICATIONS DEVICE (MODEM) SURVEY 



MODEM SURVEY 



Two sources were used to select modems for evaluation for possible 
inclusion in TUNS: (1) descriptions in PC Tech Journal 's 1987 "Comprehensive 
Product Guide"; (2) reports in Datapro Reports on Data Communications . Seven 
modems were selected for further review. Information obtained from the 
vendors and the resources listed above is summarized in this appendix. 



MODEM 
MANUFACTURER: ANDERSON JACOBSON, TNf. MODEL: AJ Connection tt 



CAPABILITIES 


-y " t * "^ 





Hayes compatible 







300 baud rate 







1200 baud rate 







2400 baud rate 







Full duplex 







Half duplex 







Asynchronous 







Synchronous 







Auto dial 







Auto answer 




FEATURES 









AJ superset command 







Auto lock. 







Callback security 





LIST PRICE: && GSA C0 ST: $52Q 



C-2 



MODEM 
MANUFACTURER: HAYFS MICROCQMPIITFR PRODUCTS. INC . MODEL: HAYES SMARTMODEM 2400 



CAPABILITIES 





300 baud rate 





1200 baud rate 





2400 baud rate 





Full duplex 





Half duplex 





Asynchronous 





Synchronous 





Auto dial 





Auto answer 



FEATURES 

o External or internal 



LIST PRICE: $212 GSA C0ST: i52S 



C-3 



MODEM 
MANUFACTURER: INCOMM DATA SYSTEMS, INC. MODEL: TURBO 2400 



CAPABILITIES 

o Hayes compatible 

o 300 baud rate 

o 600 baud rate 

o 1200 baud rate 

o 2400 baud rate 

o Full duplex 

o Half duplex 

o Asynchronous 

o Synchronous 

o Auto Dial 

o Auto Answer 



FEATURES: 

o Five years guarantee 

o Upgrade to 4800 baud available for external modem 



LIST PRICE: $449 GSA C0S T: $315 



C-4 



M^iirarTiiBFR- 1 TNK COMPUTER. INC. 


CAPABILITIES 





Hayes compatible 





300 baud rate 





600 baud rate 





1200 baud rate 





2400 baud rate 





Full duplex 





Half duplex 





Asynchronous 





Synchronous 





Auto dial 





Auto answer 


FEATURES 







The only vendor for Link modems 





Not on GSA schedule 



MODEM 

MODEL: SM-24PC 



LIST PRICE: $m GOVERNMENT PRICE: J23Q 



C-5 



MODEM 



MANUFACTURER: MICROCOM. TNC 



MODEL: AX/2400 



CAPABILITIES 

o Hayes compatible 
o 300 baud rate 
o 1200 baud rate 
o 2400 baud rate 
o Full duplex 
o Half duplex 
o Asynchronous 
o Synchronous 
o Auto dial 
o Auto answer 



FEATURES 

o Hayes compatible includes software 
o Also compatible with other modems 



LIST PRICE: 1742 



GSA COST: $52$ 



C-6 



MODEM 
^r MODEL: MIILTIMODEM 224PC 



CAPABILITIES 





Hayes compatible 





300 baud rate 





1200 baud rate 





2400 baud rate 





Full duplex 





Half duplex 





Asynchronous 





Synchronous 





Auto dial 





Auto answer 


FEATURES 







Software included 



LIST PRICE: i£42 GSA COST: $42£ 



C-7 



MODEM 
MANUFACTURER: PARADYNE. CORP M0DE| _. FDX 24Qn 



CAPABILITIES 

o Hayes compatible 

o 300 baud rate 

o 600 baud rate 

o 1200 baud rate 

o 2400 baud rate 

o Full duplex 

o Half duplex 

o Asynchronous 

o Synchronous 

o Auto dial 

o Auto answer 



FEATURES 

o Includes software 

o Software programmer interface 



LIST PRICE: $4J5 GSA COST: $296 



C-8 



APPENDIX n 
TAPE BACKUP DEVICF fl lRVFY 



TAPE BACKUP DEVICE SURVEY 



Tape backup device vendors were interviewed over the telephone, using a 

ZZZT1 b 7 SN - Vendors " ere asked •>•""< ««««<>"• -» '- 

bene r , th6lr Pr ° dUCtS - ThiS 1nf °™ at -" "" .uppl-ented 
with the benchmark results published in the October 1986 BYI£ magazine. This 

appends contains a sugary of nine different tape backup devices from seven 
different vendors. Pricing information is not included for those products 
which were eliminated for reasons other than cost. 



D-l 



TAPE BACKUP DEVICE 

MANUFACTURER: ALLOY COMPUTER PRODUCTS TNr. MODEL: FT-60 

KIND OF TAPE UNIT 
o Cartridge 

COMPUTER INTERFACE 
o AT compatible 
o Disk controller required 
o 256 Kb RAM needed 

TAPE/DEVICE CHARACTERISTICS 
o 60 Mb capacity 
o Tape formatting required once 
o 12 recording tracks 

BACKUP/RESTORE SOFTWARE 
o Menu, command software control 
o Automatic backup 
o Backup by: 

directory 

file-by-file 

date/time 
o Restore by: 

directory 

file-by-file 
o Backup benchmark: 200 files, 1 Kb each - 2 minutes, 15 seconds 
o Restore benchmark: 200 files, 1 Kb each - 10 minutes, 30 seconds 
o Backup reporting: directory listing 

LAN INTERFACE 
o Not compatible with Novell Advanced NetHare/286 



D-2 



TAPE BACKUP DEVICE 

VENDOR: AHOY COMPUTER PRO MODEL: PC-9 TRACK 

KIND OF TAPE UNIT 
o Reel 

COMPUTER INTERFACE 
o AT compatible 

TAPE/DEVICE CHARACTERISTICS 
o 42 Mb capacity 
o Data transfer rate: 1 to 7 Mb per minute data transfer rate 

BACKUP/RESTORE SOFTWARE 
o Menu, command software control 
o Automatic backup 
o Backup by: 

directory 

file-by-file 

since last backup 

date/time 
o Restore by: 

directory 

file-by-file 

entire tape 

date/time 

LAN INTERFACE 
o Not compatible with Novell Advanced NetWare/286 



D-3 



TAPE BACKUP DEVICE 
VENDOR: EMERALD SYSTFMS CORP M0DEL: LAN _ 22on 

KIND OF TAPE UNIT 
o Cartridge 

COMPUTER INTERFACE 
o AT compatible 
o One expansion slot required 
o One 5 1/4 inch chassis position required 
o 256 Kb RAM needed 

TAPE/DEVICE CHARACTERISTICS 
o 60 Mb to 240 Mb capacity 
o Data transfer rate: 90 Kb bps 
o Tape formatting required once 
o 9 recording tracks 



BACKUP/RESTORE SOFTWARE 





Automatic backup 





On-line backup 





Backup by: 




directory 




file-by-file 




date/time 





Restore by: 




directory 




file-by-file 




entire tape 




date/time 





Backup reporting: 



directory listing 

LAN INTERFACE 
o Not compatible with Novell Advanced NetWare/286 



D-4 



TAPE BACKUP DEVICE 

MANUFACTURER: pmfrai n SYSTEM CORP. MODEL: LAN-9100 

KIND OF TAPE UNIT 
o Cartridge 

COMPUTER INTERFACE 
o AT & XT compatible 
o One expansion slot required 
o 256 Kb RAM needed 

TAPE/DEVICE CHARACTERISTICS 
o 60 Mb to 120 Mb capacity 
o Data transfer rate: 90 Kb bps 
o 15 recording tracks 

BACKUP/RESTORE SOFTWARE 
o Menu, command software control 
o Automatic backup 
o On-line backup 
o Backup by: 

directory 
file-by-file 
date/time 
o Restore by: 

entire tape 
file-by-file 
o Backup benchmark: file by file, 2.5 Mb = 1 minute 
o Backup reporting: status log file 

LAN INTERFACE 
o Available under Novell Advanced NetWare/286 

GSA COST: $1.496 (60 Mb) 
$2.246 (120 Mb) 



D-5 



TAPE BACKUP DEVICE 

VENDOR: GENOA SYSTEMS CORP MODEL: GENOA GALAXY 

KIND OF TAPE UNIT 
o Cartridge 

COMPUTER INTERFACE 
o AT compatible 



TAPE/DEVICE CHARACTERISTICS 





60 Mb capacity 


BACKUP/RESTORE SOFTWARE 





Software provided 





Menu software control 





Automatic backup 





Backup by: 




file-by-file 




image 





Restore by: 




file-by-file 




image 





Backup benchmark: 20 Mb - 4 minutes 



LAN INTERFACE 
o Available under Novell Advanced NetWare/286 

o Requires purchase of GENWARE backup software for backup of hidden 
files 

GSA COST: $ 999 
GENWARE: $ 126 



D-6 



TAPE BACKUP DEVICE 
VENDOR: SYSGEN INC MODEL: SMART QIC-FILE 

KIND OF TAPE UNIT 
o Cartridge 

COMPUTER INTERFACE 
o AT compatible 
o One expansion slot required 
o 192 Kb RAM needed 

TAPE/DEVICE CHARACTERISTICS 
o 60 Mb capacity 
o Data transfer rate: 

3 to 5 Mb per minute, image 

1 to 3 Mb per minute, file-by-file 
o 9 recording tracks 

BACKUP/RESTORE SOFTWARE 
o Menu, command software control 
o Automatic backup 
o Backup by: 

directory 

file-by-file 

date/time 
o Restore by: 

directory 

file-by-file 

date/time 
o Backup benchmark: 200 files, 1 Kb each - 3 minutes, 15 seconds 
o Restore benchmark: 200 files, 1 Kb each - 9 minutes, 20 seconds 
o Backup reporting: Directory listing 

LAN INTERFACE 
o Unreliable under Novell Advanced NetWare/286 



D-7 



TAPE BACKUP DEVICE 
VENDOR: TALLGRASS TFfHNOI DMK M0DE| _. TG _ 4Q6Q 

KIND OF TAPE UNIT 
o Cartridge 

COMPUTER INTERFACE 
o AT compatible 
o One expansion slot required 
o 256 Kb RAM needed 

TAPE/DEVICE CHARACTERISTICS 
o 60 Mb to 80 Mb capacity 
o Tape formatting required once 
o 11 recording tracks 

BACKUP/RESTORE SOFTWARE 
o Command software control 
o Backup by: 

directory 

file-by-file 

date/time 
o Restore by: 

directory 

file-by-file 

entire tape 
o Backup benchmark: 200 files, 1 Kb each « 1 minute, 27 seconds 
o Restore benchmark: 200 files, 1 Kb each - 2 minutes, 05 seconds 
o Backup reporting: Directory listing of hard disk and tape drive 

LAN INTERFACE 

o Available under Novell Advanced NetHare/286 
o Requires purchase of separate controller 

GSA COST: $1.356 



D-8 



TAPE BACKUP DEVICE 

VENDOR: TECH USA MODEL: PC 10-12 

KIND OF TAPE UNIT 
o Reel 

COMPUTER INTERFACE 
o AT, XT and Compaq 386 compatible 

TAPE/DEVICE CHARACTERISTICS 
o 50 Mb capacity 
o Data transfer rate: 125 inches/second 

BACKUP/ RESTORE SOFTWARE 
o Menu, command software control 
o Automatic backup 
o Backup by: 

directory 

file-by-file 
o Restore by: 

file-by-file 

entire tape 

LAN INTERFACE 
o Not compatible with Novell Advanced NetWare/286 



D-9 



TAPE BACKUP DEVICE 

VENDOR: TECMAR INC MODEL: QIC-6QH 

KIND OF TAPE UNIT 
o Cartridge 

COMPUTER INTERFACE 
o AT compatible 
o One expansion slot required 
o 448 Kb RAM needed 

TAPE/DEVICE CHARACTERISTICS 
o 60 Mb capacity 

o Tape formatting required each time used 
o 9 recording tracks 

BACKUP/RESTORE SOFTWARE 
o Menu, command software control 
o Backup by: 

directory 

file-by-file 

date/time 
o Restore by: 

directory 

file-by-file 
o Backup benchmark: 200 files, 1 Kb each - 1 minute, 21 seconds 
o Restore benchmark: 200 files, 1 Kb each - 2 minutes, 10 seconds 
o Backup reporting: directory listing 

LAN INTERFACE 
o Available for LAN 



D-10 



APPENDIX E 
LAN HARDWARE SURVEY 



LAN HARDWARE SURVEY 



Eleven manufacturers were surveyed by ISN for information about fourteen 
currently available LAN hardware devices. Vendors were asked specific 
questions to ascertain each product's ability to meet the TUNS functional and 
technical requirements. Additional information about these products was 
obtained from published evaluations including the PC Magazine series entitled 
"Making Connections", and the Auerbach Technology Report series contained in 
Datacomm Equipment . This appendix contains a summary of the LAN hardware 
products evaluated for possible inclusion in TUNS. 



E-l 



LAN HARDWARE 

MANUFACTURER: 3COM NETW0RK: ETHERSERIF <; 

PHYSICAL 

o Topology: 

Bus 
o Cable medium: 

Coaxial (thin or standard 50-ohm) 
o CSMA/CD line access method 
o Data type: 

Digital 
o Maximum transmission speed (bps): 

10 M 
o Maximum devices: 

1,000 
o Industry architecture: 

IBM 

Ethernet 
o Communications protocols: 
Async 
3270 gateway optional 

SOFTWARE COMPATIBILITY 
o Novell NetWare 
o 3Com 3+ Share 

COMPONENTS AND COSTS (GSA) 

o Etherlink card: $ 5_25_ GSA Cost: $45J. 
o Etherlink Plus card: $ £52 GSA Cost: $£5_L 
3Server3 file server: $4.540 
Network software: 3+ Share (unlimited users) $1.149 

Etherseries $546 



E-2 



LAN HARDWARE 
MANUFACTURER: AST RESEARCH NETWORK: AST RESOURCE SHARING 

PHYSICAL 

o Topology: 
Bus 
o Cable medium: 

Coaxial (RG-59) 
o CSMA/CD line access method 
o Data type: 

Digital 
o Maximum transmission speed (bps): 

5 M 
o Maximum devices: 

64 
o Maximum distance between nodes: 

1,500 ft. 
o Industry architecture: 

IBM NETBIOS 
o Communications protocols: 
Bisync SNA 

SOFTWARE COMPATIBILITY 
o Novell NetWare 

COMPONENTS AND COSTS 

o 20 ft. cable: $ 30 

o Starter kit: $1,295 

2 adaptors, NETBIOS, 2 network programs 

o Adaptor: $ 495 



E-3 



LAN HARDWARE 
MANUFACTURER: AST RESEARCH NETWORK: AST-PCNET II 

PHYSICAL 

o Topology: 

Bus 
o Cable medium: 

Twisted pair 
o CSMA/CA line access method 
o Data type: 

Digital 
o Maximum transmission speed (bps): 

800 
o Maximum devices: 

160 
o Maximum distance between nodes: 

500 ft. 
o Industry architecture: 

IBM NETBIOS 
o Communications protocols: 

HDLC 

SNA 

SOFTWARE COMPATIBILITY 
o Novell NetWare 
o Microsoft Networks 
o IBM NETBIOS OS 

COMPONENTS AND COSTS 

Starter Kit: $1,090 

2 interface boards, software, cable, manual 
Interface board: $ 495 
50 ft. cable: $ 25 



E-4 



LAN HARDWARE 



MANUFACTURER: AT&T/ IS 



NETWORK: STARLAN 



PHYSICAL 

o Topology: 
Daisy 
Star 
o Cable medium: 

Twisted pair 
o CSMA/CS line access method 
o Data types: 

Digital 

Voice 
o Maximum transmission speed (bps): 

1 M 
o Maximum devices: 

1,120 
o Maximum distance between nodes: 

Daisy: 400 ft. 

Star: N/A 
o Industry architecture: 

IBM 
o Communications protocols: 

Asynchronous 

SOFTWARE COMPATIBILITY 

o Vendor-provided software 
o Novell NetWare 

COMPONENTS AND COSTS 

o Centralized unit: $437 (for 11 workstations) 

o PC net access unit: $437 



E-5 



LAN HARDWARE 
MANUFACTURER: BANYAN SYSTEMS NETWORK: VINES 

COMMENTS 

o Banyon markets file servers and software for use on a variety of LANS 

PHYSICAL 

o Maximum devices: 

30 per server 
Multiple servers per LAN 
o Communications protocols: 
Asynchronous 
HDLC/SDLC 

COMPONENTS AND COSTS 
o File server: 

43 Mb $11,245 

70 Mb $12,245 

120 Mb $16,245 
o 50 ft. cable _$50 
o File sharing & print $1,895 



E-6 



LAN HARDWARE 



MANUFACTURER: FOX RESEARCH 



NETWORK: 10-NET 



PHYSICAL 

o Topology: 

Bus 
o Cable medium: 

Twisted pair 
o CSMA/CA line access method 
o Data type: 

Digital 
o Maximum transmission speed (bps): 

1 M 
o Maximum devices: 

Unlimited 
o Maximum distance between modes: 

2,000 ft. 

10,000 ft. with repeaters 
o Industry architecture: 

Ethernet 

SOFTWARE COMPATIBILITY 

o Requires vendor-provided software, 10-net 

COMPONENTS AND COSTS 

o Interface board, tap box, software: $695 

o Cable: 25^/ft. 



E-7 



LAN HARDWARE 
MANUFACTURER: J£M NETWORK: PC-NETWORK 

PHYSICAL 

o Topology: 
Tree 
o Cable medium: 

Broadband coaxial 
o CSMA/CD line access method 
o Data type: 

Digital 

Video 
o Maximum transmission speed (bps): 

2 M 
o Maximum devices: 

72 with network expander unit 
o Maximum distance between modes: 

1,000 ft. 
o Industry architecture: 

IBM NETBIOS 
o Communications protocol: 

Asynchronous 
o Software compatibility: 

Novell Advanced NetWare 

COMPONENTS AND COSTS 

o PC adaptor: $386 

o Translator unit: $409 

o PC network base expander: $ 45 

o 25 ft. cable: $ 24 



E-8 



MANUFACTURER: IBM 



LAN HARDWARE 

NETWORK: TOKEN RING LAN 



PHYSICAL 

o Topology: 
Ring 
o Cable medium: 

Twisted pair 
o Token-passing line access method 
o Data type: 

Digital 
o Maximum transmission speed (bps): 

4 M 
o Maximum devices: 

72 with standard cabling 
260 with expansion units 
o Industry architecture: 
IBM 

IEEE 802.2, 802.5 
o Communications protocol : 
Asynchronous 
SNA 3270 
SDLC 
o Software compatibility: 

Novell Advanced NetWare 

COMPONENTS AND COSTS 
o PC adaptor: 
o Cable adaptor: 
o Multi-station access unit: 
o NETBIOS software: 



$595 
i_27 
$660 
$ 29 



o 



Token ring/PC network inter-connect program: $374 



E-9 



LAN HARDWARE 



MANUFACTURER: LEE DATA 



NETWORK: ARCNET 



PHYSICAL 

o Topology: 

Ring 
o Cable medium: 

Twisted pair 
o Token-passing line access method 
o Data type: 

Digital 
o Maximum transmission speed (bps): 

2.5 M 
o Maximum devices: 

255 
o Maximum distance between nodes: 

2,000 ft. 

o Industry architecture: 

Ethernet 

o Communications protocol : 
Asynchronous 
SNA 

SOFTWARE COMPATIBILITY 

o Requires vendor-provided software, LANMASTER 



COMPONENTS AND COSTS 

o Network server: 
o Interface board: 
o Cables: 

50ft. $42 



$15,600 o Console cable: 

$ 495 o Software for server: 



$ 55 



$1,000 
o Active hub (8 ports): $ 790 



E-10 



LAN HARDWARE 
MANUFACTURER: NOVELL NETWORK: ETHERNET 

COMMENTS: 

o Interface card is 3Com Ethernet card 

o All Novell LANS use other vendors' hardware for interface cards 

PHYSICAL 

o Topology: 
Bus 
o Cable medium: 

Coaxial (thin or standard 50-ohm) 
o CSMA/CD line access method 
o Data type: 

Digital 
o Maximum transmission speed (bps): 

10 M 
o Maximum devices: 

100 per file server 
o Industry architecture: 

Ethernet 
o Communications protocol: 

Proprietary 



COMPONENTS AND COSTS 

o Interface card: 1525 (GSA cost: *524 } 



E-ll 



LAN HARDWARE 

MANUFACTURER: ORCHID TECHNOLOGY NETWORK: PC NET 

PHYSICAL 

o Topology: 
Bus 
o Cable medium: 

Coaxial (thin or standard 50-ohrn) 
o CSMA/CD line access method 
o Data type: 

Digital 
o Maximum transmission speed (bps): 

1 M 
o Maximum devices: 

255 
o Maximum distance between nodes: 

7,000 ft. 
o Industry architecture: 
IBM 

o Communications protocol : 
Asynchronous 
Bisynchronous 
HDLC 

SOFTWARE COMPATIBILITY 
o PC Net 
o Novell Advanced NetWare 

COMPONENTS AND COSTS (30% off for government) 

o PC starter kit (2 workstations): $1,090 
o 2 PC net boards: $1,550 

o Adaptor: $ 495 



E-12 



LAN HARDWARE 
MANUFACTURER: QUADRAM CORP NETWORK: QUADNET VI 

PHYSICAL 

o Topology: 

Star 
o Cable medium: 

Coaxial (thin or standard 50-ohm) 
o CSMA/CD/CA line access method 
o Data type: 

Digital 
o Maximum transmission speed (bps): 

10 M 
o Maximum devices: 

Unlimited 
o Communications protocol: 

Asynchronous 

SOFTWARE COMPATIBILITY 

o Vendor-provided software, requires Novell Advanced NetWare 

COMPONENTS AND COSTS 

o Network interface card: $ 795 



E-13 



LAN HARDWARE 

MANUFACTURER: STANDARD MTfRO wtfmc NETWORK: ARCNET 

PHYSICAL 

o Topology: 
Ring 
o Cable medium: 

Coaxial (RG62/V) 
o Token-passing line access method 
o Data type: 

Digital 
o Maximum transmission speed (bps): 

2.5 M 
o Maximum devices: 

255 
o Maximum distance between nodes: 

2,000 ft. 
o Industry architecture: 
Datapoint ARCNET 

COMPONENTS AND COSTS 

o Operating system: $1.954 

Active hub (8 ports): $ 788 

PC interface board: $ 485 

20 ft. cable: 3 37 



E-14 



APPENDIX F 
LAN SOFTWARF SIIRVFY 



LAN SOFTWARE SURVEY 



ISN interviewed the manufacturer's representatives for six LAN software 

products. Vendors were asked specific questions about the software's 

capabilities as they pertain to the TUNS functional and technical 

requirements. Information provided by vendors was supplemented by published 

evaluation reports. The reports included the PC Magazine series entitled 

"Making Connections" which began in the December 9, 1986 issue, and those 

evaluations reported in the Auerbach Technology Report series contained in 

Datacomm Equipment. This appendix contains a summary of the information 

obtained about five of the six LAN software products. The AST Network Program 

product was not included here due to the fact that the software comes bundled 

with the hardware. GSA pricing was not provided by Banyan or Lee Data. 



F-l 



LAN SOFTWARE 

MANUFACTURER: BANYAN SYSTEMS NETWORK: VINES/286 

OPERATING SYSTEM INTERFACE 

o Full NETBIOS support/emulation 

o MS-DOS Lock/Unlock (INT 21, 5C) 

o DOS 2.0+, DOS 3.0+ workstation operating system 

GENERAL FUNCTIONALITY 

o LAN hardware supported by software: 

Allen-Bradley VistaLan Proteon Pronet 
IBM Token Ring IBM PC Net 

Convus Omninet Nestar Arcnet 

3 Com Ethernet Ungerman-Bass Ethernet 

Inter-LAN Ethernet 
Standard Micro Systems ARCNET 
o Additional hardware devices supported by software: 

Site-to-site connections over dial or leased lines using 
asynchronous or synchronous (HDLC) protocol. 
Remote PC dial-in 
o Additional software available: 
System administration 
Print and file sharing capabilities 
o Security provided by software: 

Full security so only authorized users can access resources 
o Other software features: 

Electronic mail standard 

Network-wide naming and addressing system 

Integrates multiple communications technologies 

Makes network resources appear as transparent extensions to 

local PC resources 

Permits environmental growth and easy expansion 



LIST PRICE: $1,895 GSA COST: Not provided 



F-2 



LAN SOFTWARE 

MANUFACTURER: FOX RFSEARCH CORP NETWORK: lO^NEI 

OPERATING SYSTEM INTERFACE 

MS-DOS Lock/Unlock (INT 21, 5C) 

o DOS 3.0+ workstation operating system 

GENERAL FUNCTIONALITY 

o LAN hardware supported by software: 

10-Net hardware only 
o Software requirements when adding new nodes: 

Need 10-Net board 
o Hardware limitations imposed by software: 

Must have a repeater when using more than 32 workstations 
o Security provided by software: 

Directory rights, read and write files 

Set level of password 
o Other software features: 

Electronic mail 

Calendar 

Utilities 
o Additional software available: 

10-Net database 

Gateway communication 

COST: $695 (software bundled with hardware) 

LIST PRICE: WS. (includes hardware) GSA COST: Not available on GSA 

schedule 



F-3 



LAN SOFTWARE 
MANUFACTURER: LEE DATA 



NETWORK: LANMASTFR 



OPERATING SYSTEM INTERFACE 

o Full NETBIOS support/emulation 

o MS-DOS Lock/Unlock (INT 21, 5C) 

o DOS 2.0+, DOS 3.0+, UNIX workstation operating system 

GENERAL FUNCTIONALITY 

o LAN hardware supported by software: 

3Com Etherlink Plus Ungermann Bass Net/One 
IBM PC Net Omni net 

ARCNET IBM Token Ring 

o Dedicated file servers supported 
o Inter-LAN operability supported: 

Between like LANs 
o Additional hardware devices supported by software: 

Shared modem 

Server to server 

Remote dial-in 

Server to host 

Network to network 
o Security provided by software: 

System administrator assigns passwords and user profiles 
o Other software features: 

Electronic mail standard 

Spooled printer sharing 

Network management (detail diagnostic tools) 

Backup and recovery files 

Bundled with file server 

LIST PRICE: %Um GSA C0ST: Not provi(Jed 



F-4 



LAN SOFTWARE 
MANUFACTURER: N<MU NETWORK: ADVANCED NETWARE/286 

OPERATING SYSTEM INTERFACE 

o Full NETBIOS support/emulation 

o MS-DOS Lock/Unlock (INT 21, 5C) 

o DOS 2.0+, DOS 3.0+ workstation operating system 

GENERAL FUNCTIONALITY 

o LAN hardware supported by software: 

AST PCNetll AT&T StarLAN 

Corvus Omni net Gateway G-net 

IBM PC Cluster Mi com Inter-LAN Ethernet 

Networth LAN Novell NetWare Etherlink Plus 

Orchid PCnet Novell NetWare G-Net 

Sperry USERNET Texas Instruments Etherlink 

3Com Etherlink 3Com Etherlink Plus 

Ungermann Bass Net/One Univation Uninet 

Davong Multllink IBM Token Ring Network 

Nastar PLAN 2000 Novell NetWare RX-Net 

Novell NetWare Proteon ProNet 

Quadram Quadnet IX Standard Microsystems ARCNET 

Tiara Systems TiaraLink Novell S-Net 

Televideo Personal Mini IBM PC Network 

Sytek System 6000 Allen-Bradley LAN/PC 

North Star Dimension Molecular System 16/300 

o Software requirements when adding new nodes: 

A shell must be run at each station to establish a link with 
NetWare 

o 16 dedicated file servers supported 

o Inter-LAN operability supported: 

Inter-LAN communication is allowed through the X.25 protocol and 

other LAN to LAN options 



F-5 



LAN SOFTWARE 
MANUFACTURER: NOVELL NETW0RK: mamj{Immm 

GENERAL FUNCTIONALITY (continued) 

o Additional hardware devices supported by software: 

All third party hardware manufacturers are responsible for 
functionality within the NetWare environment 
Dial-in capability 
Shared modems 
o Security provided by software: 

User and directory rights include open, delete, write, create, 
read, search, modification of file flags, and parental rights' 
File attributes are shareable, non-shareable, read only, and 
write 

o Other software features: 

Electronic mail standard 

External and internal bridging to like and unlike topologies and 
remote sources 
Mainframe gateways 
UPS monitoring 

Database transactional tracking with rollback and roll forward 

capabilities 

System administration from any network station 

Fault tolerance by tracking disk errors and system crashes 

LIST PRICE: $2,125 GSA COST: $1,932 



F-6 



APPENDIX G 
DB MS EVALUATION RESUt TS AND VOLUMF FSTTMATFS 



DBMS EVALUATION RESULTS AND VOLUME ESTIMATES 



The evaluation results for DBMS software are detailed in this appendix 
Included are the procedure for the benchmark tests, the benchmark test 
results, evaluation results for TUNS DBMS development, a required features 
checklist, estimated shared hard disk space requirements, evaluation 
procedures, and evaluation summary. 



G-l 



PROCEDURE FOR BENCHMARKING DATABASES 



The purpose of the benchmarking is to compare the performance of various 
database packages. All timings should be measured from the time of the last 
required keystroke by the user until the first display of information on the 
screen, unless otherwise specified. 



INITIALIZATION 



The database should be loaded with 10,000 records in random order, 
record should have the following format: 



Each 



Bytes 


Field name 


Contents 




1-10 


UKEY-A 


TESTS nnnn 


(alphanumeric field) 


11-14 


UKEY-N 


nnnn 


(numeric field) 


15-24 


DATA-A 


DESCS nnnn 


(alphanumeric field) 


25-28 


DATA-N 


nnnn 


(numeric field) 


29-30 


DKEY-A 


mm 


(alphanumeric field) 


31-32 


DKEY-N 


mm 


(numeric field) 



In the record format above, nnnn represents a number from 0000 to 9999; mm 
represents the first two digits of the four-digit number (i.e., mm is from 00 
to 99). 

Bytes 1-10 should be defined as a unique alphanumeric key field. Bytes 
11-14 should be defined as a unique numeric key field. Bytes 29-30 should be 
defined as a non-unique alphanumeric key field. Bytes 31-32 should be defined 
as a non-unique numeric key field. 



G-2 



RFNCHMARK STEPS 

1. Retrieving simple specific records 

Time how long it takes to retrieve each of the following records: 

UKEY-A-"TESTS 1000" 
UKEY-A-" TESTS 9000" 
UKEY-N-1000 
UKEY-N-9000 
DATA-A-"DESCS 1000" 
DATA-A-"DESCS 9000" 
DATA-N-1000 
DATA-N-9000 

2. Retrieving specific records using boolean logic 

Time how long it takes to retrieve each of the following records: 

DATA-A-"DESCS 1000" and UKEY-A-"TESTS 1000" 
DATA-A="DESCS 1000" and UKEY-N-1000 
DATA-N-1000 and UKEY-A-"TESTS 1000" 
DATA-N-1000 and UKEY-N-1000 
DKEY-A-"10" and UKEY-A-" TESTS 1000" 
DKEY-N-10 and UKEY-N-1000 
DATA-A-"DESCS 9000" and UKEY-A-"TESTS 9000" 
DATA-A-"DESCS 9000" and UKEY-N-9000 
DATA-N-9000 and UKEY-A-"TESTS 9000" 
DATA-N-9000 and UKEY-N-9000 
DKEY-A-"90" and UKEY-A-"TESTS 9000" 
DKEY-N-90 and UKEY-N-9000 

3. Retrieving simple groups of records 

Time how long it takes to retrieve each of the following groups of 
records. Two times should be recorded for each group: the time 



G-3 



until the first information is displayed, and the time until all of 
the information has been displayed. 

UKEY-A >- "TESTS 1000" and UKEY-A < "TESTS 1100" 

UKEY-N > = 1000 and UKEY-N < 1100 

DATA-A >« "DESCS 1000" and DATA-A < "DESCS 1100" 

DATA-N> 1000 and DATA-N < 1100 

DKEY-A - "10" and DATA-A >- "DESCS 1000" 

and DATA-A < "DESCS 1100" 

DATA-A >« "DESCS 1000" and DATA-A < "DESCS 1100" 

and DKEY-A - "10" 
DKEY-N * 10 and DATA-N >« 1000 and DATA-N < 1100 
DATA-N >- 1000 and DATA-N < 1100 and DKEY-N - 10 
UKEY-A >- "TESTS 9000" and UKEY-A < "TESTS 9100" 
UKEY-N > m 9000 and UKEY-N <. 9100 
DATA-A >- "DESCS 9000" and DATA-A < "DESCS 9100" 
DATA-N > 9000 and DATA-N < 9100 
DKEY-A - "90" and DATA-A >- "DESCS 9000" 

and DATA-A < "DESCS 9100" 
DATA-A >- "DESCS 9000" and DATA-A <* "DESCS 9100" 

and DKEY-A - "90" 
DKEY-N - 90 and DATA-N >- 9000 and DATA-N <, 9100 
DATA-N ;>« 9000 and DATA-N < 9100 and DKEY-N - 90 

4. Adding new records 



Redefine the field size for UKEY-N and DKEY-A, 
takes to add each of the following records: 



Time how long it 



UKEY-A 

TESTS 1000A 
TESTS 9000A 
TESTS 5000A 
TESTS 1001A 



UKEY-N DATA-A 

20001 DESCS 1000A 

10001 DESCS 9000A 

10002 DESCS 5000A 

10003 DESCS 1001 A 



DATA-N DKEY-A DKEY-N 



20001 
10001 
10002 
10003 



10 
90 
50 
10 



20 
10 
10 
10 



G-4 






35-: 
■ hi _ 

.. M M C 

M — » 



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** 1-1 T+ *4 ©» 






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CO CM CM CM <" 2" , 22222 



in nm n 



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X o. 

HUH ■ 
M H 

°5 " 



« •» en « 
<r\ o~ m «o 



mn «n 



an en P* CI ^ t0 ** 



one 
en en r-c 



OlHHrt 


« O 


CM CM 






en 


) r* fH tH <H 


o <h 

CM 
00 


4 




PI 







el a 

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M * • 

n m 

« I- c 



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« m «r f- 



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NN Clfl 



O cm cm cm en <-i 

CM « CM CM •"" * 

en en 





« 00 




»> t-l 




in 


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o 




















|LBS TU>5 mEJOBfitf RWIKTICN RE3ULIS| 










I RiBfiSE 


| 


1 


Possible 


|DB£EIII- 


► I KKAN/2 


|FC/roauB 


\sismv 


1 UNIFY 


1 Function | 


Rating 


1 Rating 


I Rating 


1 Rating 


I Rating 




1 High-level interface | 40 














1 language | 


10 




1 6 


3 


1 6 
1 2 
1 3 
1 4 
1 2 
1 13 


1 10 

1 r 


1 Can U9e vendor-provided utilities | 


5 




2 


1 *^ 

n 


1 Access to all DM functions | 


5 




1 ** 
1 ^ 


1 u 

1 1 


1 5 

t P 1 


1 Ease of handling record contention | 


5 




1 *' 

1 3 


1 5 1 
1 3 j 

1 *% 1 


1 Parsing not reqired | 


2 




1 2 


1 *) 

1 

1 13 


1 High-level exists 1 
JCR 1 


13 




1 « 

1 13 


I 2 [ 
1 13 | 


1 ^fario^-provided language 1 














1 LT-THBM, DO-WILE, 0\SE | 


4 


1 4 










1 Subroutines | 


4 


1 * 

3 










1 tto need to specify index | 


2 


1 ** 

| 1 










1 Read/toite non-LB6 files | 


4 


1 










1 Access KB caimanis | 


4 


1 4 










1 Execute non-DB6 programs | 


4 


1 4 










1 Ease of handling recoid contention | 


4 


1 2 










1 Gcnpiler available | 


4 


4 










1 Saeen/f arms | 20 














1 Full-screen screen generator | 


2 


2 


2 


1 


2 

2 

2 

2 

2 1 
i 


2 1 

1 j 

2 1 
2 1 

1 1 


1 Joins on forms | 
1 Automatic lookups in other files | 


2 
2 


2 



1 




2 


1 Automatic display of lookup data | 


2 








2 


1 Data format validation | 


2 | 


2 


1 


1 | 
1 


1 Access foims from high-level lang | 


2 1 





v 1 

1 1 


1 | 

2 1 

3 I 

2 1 

3 1 


1 Control over mode (add, chg, del) | 


3 | 


1 | 


1 1 


X 1 

1 1 
1 
1 


± 1 
1 | 

1 | 

2 1 


1 Autanatic cuery-by-form | 


2 | 


| 


x 1 

1 


1 Mem driver | 


3 1 


1 


x 1 

1 1 


1 %eed/perf ormance | 20 


20 | 


6 1 


1 1 


20 | 


19 | 


19 | 


1 Report generation | 8 














I Free-form placement of text and data| 


2 1 


2 1 


2 1 


2 1 


2 1 
2 1 
2 1 
1 | 


2 1 

2 1 
1 1 


1 Totals, averages | 


2 I 


2 1 


1 | 


** 1 

2 


1 Hiltiple joins | 


2 1 


2 1 


1 1 


2 1 
2 1 


1 Nested conditions | 


2 1 


1 | 


1 | 


2 I 
2 1 


1 Reference dccunentation | 5 


5 I 


5 1 


3 1 


1 | 


4 1 


4 1 


I Atailable on mini/teinfrane | 5 


5 1 


1 


! 


4 1 


1 


4 1 


1 Other vendor-provided utilities | 2 


2 J 


1 | 


2 1 


2 1 


2 1 


1 | 


1 TOIAL [loo j 


48 | 


47 | 


67 | 


77 | 


92 | 



G-6 



| DfrB REHIRED FEKIURE5 1 j j R:BAS j | 
j Feature |DBASEIII+ | KMW/2 | FC/FOOJB | SYSIB4V | IKIFY j 


i^**** ! v 65 ! yS 1 Yet 1 to 

srasr a 1 I 1 

Applications develcpnsnt generator Yes Yes ies ies 
Report generator Yes ies i» 
Report control breaks, totals, averages Yes Yes Yes ies 
»j w^. ..n, Yes 1 Yes I ies 1 i« 
Ad hx cusry \ yZ Yes 1 No 1 Yes 
| Screen generator Yes Y es no i 
| Full screen utilization No I No No No 
Default screen formats Yes Yes No Yes 
1 Data dictionary *> *J Ho Yes 
| Relational file strictures or Yes Yes wiSiri rel 
| networVhierarchical file stnrtures I rel rel hier/rel rel 

l^nSS'* 1 Yes Yes I Yes I Yes 

SSST Yes Yes 1 Yes 1 Yes 

Sff No No I Yes 1 No 

K£l ** Yes 1 No 1 Yes 

IS Yes I No | No I Yes 

2S Yes No I Yes I Yes 

22 Yes 1 No I lb Yes 

RaJT | Yes I No I Yes Yes 

| Right/left justification I No j No Y « * 

| Default values No Yes » ^ 

| Field recognition editing Yes No Yes ies 

| Data nanipulaticn laguage interface Yes Yes ies ies 

| Mitiple file interface Yes Yes Yes I Yes ^ 


Yes I 
Yes | 
Yes I 
Yes j 
Yes I 
Yes | 
Yes I 
Yes | 
Yes I 
Yes I 
Yes 1 
Yes I 
Yes I 
1 Yes I 
j rel/hier j 

I Yes 1 
I Yes 1 
j Yes 
j No 
| No 
j Yes 
| Yes 
| No 
| Yes 
I Yes | 
I No I 
I Yes 1 
I Yes I 


| TOIAL YES RESPONSES (of 27) I 22 I £ ] }Z j ^ 
| PRCRAIEO (40 MVXIMM) 1 » 1 a ■ ** ' .°° 


I 34 | 



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G-8 



EVALUATION PROCEDURES 



[VALUATION OF SUITABILITY FOR APPLICATIONS DEVELOPMENT 



In this evaluation, DBMS software products were rated on seven factors: 

o language interface 40 points; 

o screens/forms 20 points; 

o speed 20 points; 

o reports 8 points; 

o reference documentation 5 points; 

o mini/mainframe availability 5 points; and 

o vendor-provided utilities 2 points. 

For rating purposes, factors were weighted based on the impact of the specific 
factor on the ability of the DBMS to support development of the TUNS-specif ic 
applications. Maximum possible points, as indicated above, were assigned to 
each factor. Points were awarded to specific software packages based on a 
combination of quantitative and qualitative information. 

Points for the language interface, for the screens/forms support provided 
by the package, and for report generation were awarded according to the 
checklist on page G-6 of this appendix. Within each listed item, points were 
assigned based on a comparison of the capabilities of each package. 

Points for speed were awarded based entirely on the results of the 
benchmark test. The total time was calculated for each package. The totals 
were then scaled from one to twenty. The slowest software was awarded one 
point for speed; the fastest package received the maximum possible points. 

Points for reference documentation were awarded by the evaluation team 
based on the team's judgment of the completeness of the reference 
documentation, and the ease with which specific information was found. 
Software packages were ranked on their availability on either minicomputers or 
mainframe computers. They were also rated on the extent to which vendors 
provided additional utilities, such as menu drivers and communications 
packages. Points were awarded accordingly. 

G-9 



EVALUATION OF SUITABI LITY FOR FND-USER APPI TPATTnNK 

DBMS software products were rated on six factors for end-user applications: 

o required features 40 points; 

o ease of use 25 points; 

o documentation 20 points; 

o ease of learning io points; 

o availability at TU sites 3 points; and 

cost 2 points. 

For rating purposes, factors were weighted based on the impact of the specific 
factor on the ability of the DBMS to meet TUNS requirements. Maximum possible 
points, as indicated above, were assigned to each factor. Points were awarded 
to specific software packages based on a combination of quantitative and 
qualitative information. 

Points for required features were pro-rated according to the number of 
requisite capabilities demonstrated by each package. 

Points for ease of use were determined by a consensus of the evaluation 
team based on their experience with the software during the evaluation process. 

Points for documentation were awarded by the evaluation team based on the 
team's judgment of the organization of the manual, and the understandability 
and completeness of the examples. 

The evaluation team judged each product based on their experience in 
learning the package for the first time. These were qualitative decisions 
based on the team members' experience with a wide variety of software packages. 

Software packages were ranked by their availability at TU sites and by 
cost. Points were awarded accordingly. 

A summary of all the evaluation results follows. 



G-10 



POINTS 

FACTOR POSSIBLE 

Language 40 

Screens/forms 20 

Speed 20 

Reports 8 

Documentation 5 

Availability 5 
(mini /mainframe) 

Utilities 2 

TOTAL 100 



DBASE III+ KMAN/2 PC/ FOCUS 



22 
7 
6 
7 
5 


1 



48 



29 
7 

5 
3 


__2 
46 



22 

10 

20 

8 

1 

4 



67 



R:BASE 
SYSTEM V 

30 
15 
19 

7 

4 



2 

77 



DBMS SUITABLITY FOR APPLICATIONS DEVELOPMENT 



POINTS 

FACTOR POSSIBLE 

Required Features 40 

Ease of Use 25 

Documentation 20 

Ease of Learning 10 

Site Availability 3 

Cost 2 

TOTAL 100 



DBASE III+ KMAN/2 PC/ FOCUS 



33 

19 

15 

9 

2 

1 



79 



28 

15 

10 

8 

1 

__L 

63 



25 

17 
8 
4 

1 



55 



UNIFY 

38 
18 
19 

8 

4 

4 

1 



R:BASE 
SYSTEM V 

36 
23 
15 

9 

1 

2 

86 



92 



UNIFY 

34 
20 
13 

6 



1 



74 



DBMS SUITABILITY FOR END-USER APPLICATIONS 



EVALUATION 

Development 
End-User 

TOTAL 



POINTS R:BASE 

POSSIBLE DBASE Hit KMAN/2 PC/ FOCUS SYSTEM V UNIFY 



100 
100 



48 
12 



46 
63 



67 
_55 



200 127 109 
DBMS EVALUATION SUMMARY 



122 



77 
M 



163 



92 
74 



166 



G-ll 



APPENDIX H 
SPREADSHEET EVALUATION RFSI1! TS 



SPREADSHEET EVALUATION RESULTS 



The evaluation results for spreadsheet software are detailed in this 

appendix. Included are the procedure for the benchmark tests, the benchmark 

test results, a required features checklist, evaluation procedures, and 
evaluation summary. 



H-l 



PROCEDURE FOR BENCHMARKING SPREADSHEETS 

The purpose of the benchmarking is to compare the performance of various 
spreadsheet packages. All timings should be measured from the time of the 
last required keystroke by the user until the first display of information on 
the screen. 

INITIALIZATION 

The spreadsheet should be created with a matrix of 26 (columns) by 50 
(rows) cells. All cells have the same format and the initial value of 00 
except for Al which has the value of 1.00. Save the spreadsheet on the hard 
disk. 

BENCHMARK <? TFPS 

1. Load the spreadsheet 

Time how long it takes to load the spreadsheet onto the screen 

2. Addition 

o BUA1 + .01 
o A2-A1+.01 

3. Copy formulas - recalculate all cells 

o Copy formula for row: Copy Bl to CI through Zl 

o Copy formula for column: Copy A2 to A3 through A50 

o Copy formula for multiple columns: Copy A2 to B2 through Z50. 



H-2 



4. Recalculate the spreadsheet - multiplication and exponentiation 

Time how long it takes to recalculate the spreadsheet using the 
formulas below: 

o Bl-Al *1 .01 

o A2-A1*1.01 

o B1-A1**1.01 

o A2-A1**1 .01 

5. Copy formula - recalculate all cells 

o Copy A2 to B2 through Z50 

6. Total columns and rows 






A51-A1+A2+A3+ . . 


. A50 





B51-B1+B2+B3+ . . 


. B50 





C51-C1+C2+C3+ . 


. C50 





AA1-A1+B1+C1+ . 


. Zl 





AA2-A2+B2+C2+ . 


. . Z2 





AA3-A3+B3+C3+ . 


. . Z3 



7. Recalculate the total of columns and rows by changing a number 

o A2-2 
o Bl-2 
B2-1 

8. Insert columns and rows - cursor at Al 

o Insert column A 

o Insert columns H through K 

o Insert row 20 

o Insert rows 25 through 30 



H-3 



9. Delete columns and rows - cursor at Al 

o Delete column A 

o Delete columns H through K 

o Delete row 20 

o Delete rows 25 through 30 



H-4 



SFREMHET BBGMSRK RESULTS 



ftrction 



Key 
Stroke! 



1-2-3 



Time 
in sec.) 



Key I Time 
Stroke! (in sec.) 



9uperCalc4 



Key 

Strokel 



Twin 



Time 
insec.)| 



Load the spreadsheet 

o Load the spreadsheet onto the screen 

Addition 
o Bl-Al+.Ol 
o A2M1+.01 

Copy formulas 

o Copy Bl toQ...Zl 
o GcpyA2 toA3...A50 
o OopyA2 toB2...Z50 

ttdtiplication - recalculate the spreadsheet 
o BMVP1.GL 
o A2WU*1.01 

Exponentiation - recalculate the spreadsheet 
o B1-AT1.01 
o A2M11.01 

Ccpy formula - recalculate the spreadsheet 
o GopyA2 toB2...Z50 

|Sun of colums and rows 

o A51WU*A2^A3+...A50 

o B51«*MB1+B3+...B50 

o C5Wl-»C2-K3t-...C50 

o AAWU.-»Bl+a+...Zl 

o AA2^2+B2-K2+...Z2 

o AA3-A3+B3*O...Z3 



Change the content c£ the cell 
o A2-2 
o Bl-2 
o B2-1 

Insert colums and rows - cursor at home 
o Insert columA 
o Insert colums H...K 
o Insert row 20 
o Insert rows 25.. .30 

iDelete colums and rows - cursor at home 
o Delete columA 
o Delete colums H...K 
o Delete row 20 
o Delete rows 25.. .30 



recalculate the spreadsheet 



9 
10 
10 



10 



13 
7 
7 

12 
7 
7 



TOTAL 



TOTAL TINE SCALE) ERCM 1 TO 20 
TOTAL KEYSTROKES SCALE) HKM 1 TO 5 



10 

8 

12 



10 



12 



220 



12 



H- 



65 
20 



41 



7 
7 



9 
10 
10 



7 
7 



.7 
7 



10 



12 
7 
7 

10 

7 
7 



I 



2 
2 
2 



4 
7 
6 
9 



4 
7 
6 
9 



193 | 

I 

5! 



19 



17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 



18 
18 
18 



19 
19 
19 
19 



19 
19 
19 
19 



9 
10 
10 



10 



13 

7 
7 
12 
7 
7 



10 

8 

12 



10 



12 



351 



220 



H-5 





| a^ j l"2-3 j apeiCalc4 j TVdn | 

I Man driwn 1 Yes v— I v ! 
>felp screen j gj *J Yes 
Applications development generator | No I No Jfo 

I File coipatability: Ies Yes 

' ASai 1 Yes y« v 

DIF y2 v YeS ' 

1 ns 1 yS J* ' 

Ijbid processing interface (ASCII export) | Yes y2 £ ! 
1 Data bass 1 Yes y~ I 

Ss"' 5 £ M5 MS 

jtaiam.pemoxs j Yes j « [ ^ | 

i^/ 081 • £ £ £ 

1 ^fe^lBl/autalHtlc recalculaticns 1 Yes y~ v 
1 Print NAOOs Yes £ J* 
1 Print ranges, fomulas 1 Yes \ y~ v 

H^rs, footers £ £ £ 
j *"*!"** \ g j J2 j Jes | 


1 TOIAL YES RESKNSB (of 19) 1 i 8 1R 1 ",l ! 
1 TORA1E0 (40 MOCMW) 1 38 j I 38 38 



H-6 



EVALUATION PROCEDURES 



Spreadsheet software products were rated on seven factors: 



o 










required features 40 points; 

speed 20 Points; 

ease of use 15 points; 

documentation 10 points; 

ease of learning 10 points; 
availability at TU sites 3 points; and 

cost 2 points. 



For rating purposes, factors were weighted based on the impact of the specific 
factor on the ability of the spreadsheet to meet TUNS requirements. Maximum 
possible points, as indicated above, were assigned to each factor. Points 
were awarded to specific software packages based on a combination of 
quantitative and qualitative information. 

Points for required features were pro-rated according to the number of 
requisite capabilities demonstrated by each package. 

Points for speed were awarded based entirely on the results of the 
benchmark test. The totals were then scaled from one to twenty. The slowest 
software was awarded one point for speed; the fastest package received the 
maximum possible points. 

Five points of the ease of use rating were based on the number of 
keystrokes required to perform the benchmark tests. The total keystrokes were 
calculated for each package. The totals were then scaled from one to five. 
The software requiring the most keystrokes received one point; the package 
requiring the fewest keystrokes was awarded the maximum points. The remaining 
points for ease of use were determined by a consensus of the evaluation team 
based on their experience with the software during the evaluation process. 



H-7 



Points for documentation were awarded by the evaluation team based on the 
team's judgment of the organization of the manual, and the understandabi lity 
and completeness of the examples. 

The evaluation team judged each product based on their experience in 
learning the package for the first time. These were qualitative decisions 
based on the team members' experience with a wide variety of software packages. 

Software packages were ranked by their availability at TU sites and by 
cost. Points were awarded accordingly. 

A summary of these results follows. 



FACTOR 

Required features 

Speed 

Ease of use 

Documentation 

Ease of learning 

Site avai labi lity 

Cost 

TOTAL 



POINTS 




POSSIBLE 


1-2-3 


40 


38 


20 


20 


15 


7 


10 


9 


10 


8 


3 


3 


2 


1 


100 


86 



TWIN 

38 



8 

6 

8 



2 
62 



SUPERCALC 4 

38 

7 
15 

9 
10 



81 



SPREADSHEET EVALUATION SUMMARY 



H-8 



APPENDIX I 
WORD PROCES SING EVAIIIATTQN RESHI TS 



WORD PROCESSING EVALUATION RESULTS 



The evaluation results for word processing software are detailed in this 
appendix. Included are the procedure for the benchmark tests, the benchmark 
test results, a required features checklist, evaluation procedures, and 
evaluation summary. 



1-1 

C-3. 



PROCEDURE FOR BENCHMARKING WORD PROCESSORS 

The purpose of the benchmarking is to compare the performance of various 
word processing packages. 

INITIALI7ATTnN 

Load the 5-page test file into the word processing package. The test file 
contains only printable ASCII characters and a hexadecimal "OA" (linefeed) 
Format the test file with 55 lines per page, and margins set at 10 and 70 ' 
Save the file as a word processing document. 

BENCHMARK STFPS 

1. Load the file 

Time how long it takes to load a file with 5 pages of text 

2. Save the file 

Time how long it takes to save a file with 5 pages of text 

3. Search and replace strings 

3.1 Search for the following strings with the cursor positioned at 
the beginning of the file: 

o String of »R:Base 5000 also provides an application" 

o String of "an x-y graph, or" 

o String of "This feature was a long time coming" 



1-2 



3.2 Search and replace the following strings with the cursor at the 
beginning of the file: 

o Replace "R:base 5000 also provides an application" with "R:BASE 

5000 ALSO PROVIDES AN APPLICATION" 
o Replace "an x-y graph, or "with "AN X-Y GRAPH, OR" 
o Replace "This feature was a long time coming" with "THIS FEATURE 

WAS A LONG TIME COMING" 

3.3 Search and replace the following strings with the cursor at the 
beginning of the file. This replacement causes the text file to 
reformat: 

o Replace "SSI" with "Satellite Software International" 
o Replace "Samna" with Samna Work III" 

4. Repaginate the text file following a margin change 

o Change the 61-character line length to 51-character 
o Reset the 51-character line length back to 61-character 



1-3 



5. Copy a block of text 

o Copy first paragraph (7 lines) to the end of file 
o Copy second paragraph (17 lines) to the end of file 
o Copy first page of text to the end of file 

6. Delete a block of text 

o Delete last 7 lines of the file 
o Delete last 17 lines of the file 
o Delete last page of the file 

7. Move a block of text 

o hZI Hi first P ara 9raph (7 lines) to the end of file 

o toll 1*1 ff C °? para9 : a P h (17 1ine s) to the end of the file 
o Move the first page of the file to the end of the file 

8. Scroll by line from top to bottom of the file 

° flfp t hniH CU H« SOr P° si w tioned on screen at the beginning of the 
fni Ih. down the down arrow key and record the time required 
for the cursor to reach the last line of the file ret l uir ea 

9. Print a file 

o Time how long it takes to print a file with 5 pages of text 



1-4 



WCFD HWK9CH ffiOfWK RHUS 

Ptrction 



]n*\ a file , 

o Lead a file with 5 page of text 

Save a file 

o Save a file with 5 pages cf tot 

Search the f ollowing strips 

o Ribase 5000 also provides an applications 

o an x-y graph, or 

o This feature was along tine coming 

Search ard replace the following strings: ,.^. „ 

o Replaceall 'R:base 5000 also provides an JW^ktc 
with '*:B/^ 5000 AlS)H&raES AN APRIOnCNS* 
o Repla* all 'to x-y graph, of with "AN X-Y OWH, <F' 
o Replace all 'This feature was along tine coming, 
with 'THIS FBOIFE WAS AUNG TM GMfC." 

Search and replace all occurrences with text reformat 
o Replace 'Sams" with '5ama Word III" 
o Replace 'lx*us 1-2-3" with "1-2-3" . 

o Replace 'ST' with 'Satellite Software International 

Repaginate with the ■igin changes * 

o Change 61-character lire length to 51-daracter lire 
o Reset 51-character lire length hack to 61-character 

Copy the following v ,__,_,*., 

o Gcpy f irst paragraph (7 lines) to the ariof f lie 
o Gcpy sscord^aragraph (17 lines) to the end of file 
o Gopy first page to the end of the file 

Delete the following 
o Delete last page 
o Delete last 17 lines of the file 
o Delete last 7 lines of the file 

Vbve the following 

o H*e f irst paragraph (7 lines) to the endof file 
o M>ve sacxnl paragraph (17 lines) to the end of file 
o *tove first page to the end of file 

Scroll ty line fid top to bottan cf file 

o With the amor positioned on screen^ at hae, 
press down arrow key and hold; record tine reauired 
for cursor to reach last line of file 

Print file: 

o Print a file with 5 pages ^ 



S»W\ I VTJUHKHL1 



KS Tine 



TOTAL 



TOTAL TD€ SOtLED WDM 1TO 5 
TOTAL KBSTKKB SOIH) KM 1TO 15 



11 

11 
11 



11 
11 
11 



55 
65 



14 

24 

8 



5 

19 

9 



14 

24 

8 



336 
1 



KS Tine 



21 

48 

1Z7 



135 

137 

177 



241 
171 
175 



540 
618 



6 
14 



37 
7 
3 



114 



175 



2931 
1 



WKEWR 



LEADING EXE 



VCRD 



IS Tine 




99 

15 



L 



7 

9 

11 



7 
8 

13 



259 



477 
5 



4 
4 
4 



10 
10 
10 



29 
29 



2 
186 

9 



KS Time 



KS 



Time 



44 
44 
44 



79 
72 



9 
10 
11 



9 
11 
13 



37 



194 

626 
4 



15 

7 
7 



52 
62 



13 
15 
10 



6 

10 

9 



12 

19 

9 



274 
4 



7 
13 
25 



35 

33 

30 



53 

27 
35 



5 
7 
9 



4 

4 
2 



3 
5 

6 



I 



484 

805 
4 



3 
3 
3 



4 
5 



4 

4 
4 



7 

7 



4 

4 
4 



4 
4 

4 



7 
7 
7 



105 
15 



* W^m dees irt*«*^icrefomt after the narginch^ 



1-5 



ICRD JKXE9CR RHJJIRH) FEMIRES 
Feature 



SWA 



WRLHKHLT 



WCRD5IAR 



IEVDING EH 



WCRD 



Menu driven 

Help screen 

Spelling checker 

Jteth capability 

Block moves 

AutooBtic backup files 

Mail serge 

Hit more than ore file en screen 

Combine docunents 

'<go to" cenmand 

Headers/footers 

Search and replace 

Automatic reformat 

FomBt by paragraph 

Fonut by page 
Fomat by docunent 
Gut and paste text 

Insert/overwrite 

Cursor movement - character 

Cursor movement - void 

Cursor movement - screen 

Cursor movement ■» begin of file 

Cursor movement - end cf file 

Delete character 

Delete void 

Delete page 

Delete sentence 

Delete Block 

Boilerplate 

Underline 

Supar/supscript 

foriaontal/wrtical scrolling 

Boldface 

Milriple oolums 

Index/table of content 

Paginate/repaginate 

Left/right justified text 

Decani tabs 

Variable margin 

Aunaatic centering 

Automatic indentation 

Insert printer control code 

Insert printer stop code 

Printer interrupt 

Pause- for text entry 

Scientific notation 

Ccnani s - user-defined keys 

Canards - repeat last cannand 

Canards - cancel cennand 

Canards - undo last cannand 

CuiuhUs - repeat omiuid N Hnx 

Display docunre directory 

Create docunent sunsary sheet 

Access DOS without exit the package 

Renaae docunent 

Move docunent 

Copydccunent 



No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

No 

No 

Yes 

No 

Yes 



"TOOL YB RESKNSE (of 57) 
HWA1H) (45 MOCWW) 



51 
40 



Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes (page #) 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
No 
Yes 

56 
44 



40 
32 



Yes 


1 Yes 


Yes 


1 Yes 


Yes 


1 Yes 


No 


1 No 


Yes 


I Yes 


Yes 


1 Yes 


Yes 


1 Yes 


No 


1 Yes 


Yes 


1 Yes 


Yes (string) 


I Yes (page #) 


Yes 


1 Yes 


Yes 


1 Yes 


No 


1 Yes 


Yes 


! No 


No 


1 Yes 


No 


1 Yes 


Yes 


I Yes 


Yes 


1 Yes 


Yes 


1 Yes 


Yes 


I Yes 


Yes 


1 Yes 


Yes 


1 Yes 


Yes 


1 Yes 


Yes 


1 Yes 


Yes 


1 Yes 


No 


1 Yes 


No 


1 Yes 


Yes 


1 Yes 


Yes 


1 Yes 


Yes 


1 Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes | 


Yes 


Yes | 


Yes 


Yes | 


Yes 


No | 


Yes 


No | 


Yes 


Yes | 


Yes 


Yes | 


Yes 


Yes | 


Yes 


No | 


Yes 


No | 


No 


No | 


Yes 


Yes | 


No 


Yes | 


Yes 


No | 


Yes 


Yes | 


No 


Yes | 


Yes 


No | 


No 


No j 


No 


Yes | 


Yes 


No | 


Yes | 


Yes | 


Yes 1 



49 
39 



Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 



52 
41 



1-6 



EVALUATION PROCEDURES 



Word processing software products were rated on seven factors: 



o 










required features 45 points; 

ease of use 20 points; 

documentation 15 points; 

ease of learning 10 points; 

speed 5 points; 
availability at TU sites 3 points; and 

cost 2 P° ints ' 



For rating purposes, factors were, weighted based on the impact of the specific 
factor on the ability of the word processing software to meet TUNS 
requirements. Maximum possible points, as indicated above, were assigned to 
each factor. Points were awarded to specific software packages based on a 
combination of quantitative and qualitative information. 

Points for required features were pro-rated according to the number of 
requisite capabilities demonstrated by each package. 

Fifteen points of the ease of use rating were based on the number of 
keystrokes required to perform the benchmark tests. The total keystrokes were 
calculated for each package. The totals were then scaled from one to 
fifteen The software requiring the most keystrokes received one point; the 
package requiring the fewest keystrokes was awarded the maximum points The 
remaining points for ease of use were determined by a consensus of the 
evaluation team based on their experience with the software during the 
evaluation process. 

Points for documentation were awarded by the evaluation team based on the 
team's judgment of the organization of the manuai, and the understandab.Hty 
and completeness of the examples. 



1-7 



The evaluation team judqed each product based on their experience in 
learnina the oackaae for the first time. These were Qualitative decisions 
based on the team members' experience with a wide variety of software packages. 

Points for speed were awarded based entirely on the results of the 
benchmark test. The totals were then scaled from one to five. The slowest 
software was awarded one point for speed; the fastest package received the 
maximum possible points. 

Software packaqes were ranked by their availability at TU sites and by 
cost. Points were awarded accordingly. 

A summary of the evaluation results follows. 





POINTS 




WORD 


WORD 


LEADING 


MICROSOFT 


FACTOR 


POSSIBLE 


SAMNA 


PERFECT 


STAR 


EDGE 


WORD 


Reauired features 


45 


39 


44 


32 


39 


42 


Ease of use 


20 





18 


12 


7 


19 


Documentation 


15 


10 


12 


13 


10 


13 


Ease of learning 


10 


5 


8 


9 


8 


7 


Speed 


5 


1 


5 


4 


4 


5 


Site availability 


3 





2 


3 





1 


Cost 


2 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


TOTAL 


100 


56 


90 


74 


70 


88 



WORD PROCESSING EVALUATION SUMMARY 



1-8 



APPENDIX J 
ELECTRONIC MAIL MEMORANDUM 




MEMORANDUM 



TO: Roy Bivins 

NASA TU Program Manager 

FROM: Tom Judkins *V 

ISN TU Program Manager 

DATE: January 20, 1987 

SUBJECT: Comparison of Commercial E-Mail Costs and Features 

Enclosed is a report containing a comparison of available commercial 
Electronic Mail service features and costs. Twelve vendors were contacted 
during December and January. Of these, six were selected as representative 
and are Included on the report. The Lawrence Llvermore National Laboratory 
E-Mail is also included for comparison of features; no attempt was made to 
Include costs for this provider. 

During the course of our investigation, discussions were held with the 
following NASA personnel to ascertain the policies governing the availability 
of the Telenet NASAMAIL system, the number of mailboxes allocated, the use of 
the system by contractor employees, and the E-Mail features: 

Mike Kleminski, Marshall Space Flight Center, (205) 544-0134 
Sandy Bates, NASA Headquarters, (202) 453-2007 
John Lattyak, NASA Headquarters, (202) 453-1768 

Additional Information was provided by Mr. Dave Herring of US SPRINT, the 
owners of Telenet. Telenet, as you know provides both Tel email and NASAMAIL. 
The Telemall commercial rates for a minimum user are provided for comparison 
purposes. No attempt was made to determine the current rates NASA pays for 
NASAMAIL. The features of Telemall are shown and should be the same for 
NASAMAIL. 

Please contact me or Carl Lincoln If you have any questions, on (301) 
469-0400 



Information Sy.tem* & Network* Corporation • 10411 Motor City Drive, 3ethesda, Maryland 20817 • (301) 4694400 Telex: 387814 

J-l 



COMMERCIAL ELECTRONIC MAIL 

Comparison of Cost and Features 
January 15, 1987 



The attached two spreadsheets compare the costs and features of six 
commercial vendors of Electronic Mail (E-Mail). The quotes of cost and 
features were, 1n most cases, obtained over the phone with assurances that 
follow-up printed material would be forwarded in the near future. 

Costs 

The "Cost" spreadsheet provides the quoted user start-up fee, usage 
connect charge, and miscellaneous storage charges. All figures shown are for 
commercial users and are subject to various discounts on volume, 6SA pricing 
schedules, and negotiations. 

Explanation of Spreadsheet Columnar Headings: 



Carrier: 
Fee: 

Connect Charge: 

Storage: 

Discounts: 

Access Points: 

Contact: 
Cost/7200 Char: 



Commercial vendor and title of E-Mail service 

Monthly or yearly charge for each account, multiple 
users may be billed to one account. 

Where indicated, rates are based upon line speed. The 
speed used here was 1200 bps. 

Only McDonald Douglas' "Ontyme" Imposes a storage 
charge for unread messages. 

Vendors expressed willingness to provide price breaks 
on volume, (see GSA schedules) 

Most vendors have a local access telephone number 1n 
300 or more metropolitan areas. Where a local access 
number 1s not available, WATS lines may be used for 
about $19.00 per hour. 

Salesperson's telephone number. 

At 1200 bits per second, 10 bits per character, 7200 
characters represents one minute of uninterrupted 
transmission. This number is then multiplied by the 
cost factors 1n the column headed Connect Charge. 
Monthly or yearly fees are not Included. 

The cost for Lawrence Llvermore National Laboratory E-Mail 1s not 
Included. GSA Schedule rates, which appear on schedules such as the 
Teleprocessing Services Multiple Award Schedule Contract, are also not 
Included 1n this survey, since those schedules are available 1n NASA 
procurement offices. 



J-2 



. . .... .ithpr did not wish to respond 

Other vendors are 1n the E-Mail market, ** ""^ tne holidays. The GSA 
to tneTnUial Wr»m" letw, ° I'dulf extract contains about forty 

vendor prior to award. 

EHi Z i .Fe,t U res» spreadsheet compares a yxwjf g-j^c/lW 
Each vendor h,s"he1r own 11st of special "J^^f ,« „ot Included In 
E ,'s«n".1 to the basic Purpose o E-M. "{"J.*^,.,.,. so« pr.gr..1n 9 , 
the survey, such as the ability 
a „d Order Entry. t> such 

E-Mail market. 



The following list 
spreadsheet: 

BASIC SERVICE 
ADVANCED SERVICE 
ELECTRONIC ADDRESS 

HARD COPY ADDRESS 
TELEX TERMINAL 
ONLINE HELP 

HOT LINE MESSAGE 
CUSTOMER SUPPORT 
USER DIRECTORIES 

SPELLING CHECKER 
SEARCH -BY -DATE 
SEARCH -BY -SUBJECT 

MESSAGE NUMBER 

READ ALL 

READ BY NUMBER 

MESSAGE PURGE 



„ a glossary of terns appearing, on the "Features" 

<«„r«H users- full menus a commands. 
£ rxreHence C d e userr ; S ;bbrev1.ted nenus . co^ands. 

Electronic mail box. 

Hand delivered at receiving end. 

Five or ten baud terminal. 

Command tutorial. 

Message to system administrator or vendor. 

Vendor support servi "S: 

Names of other user mailboxes. 

rhecks message text for spelling errors. 

Pick «ruu.g« <* » ev'! date * 

Pick out messages by subject. 

* sequential number assigned by the computer to every 
««s sa 9 e :, .4*^ .»«saaes Identified by number. 

S51S rUif"^s1 S . S 9 «r5o,nt1f1ed by «**. 

Discard message. 



-2- 

J-3 



MESSAGE FORWARDING Send a received message to someone else. 
USER LIST A list of other E-Mail addresses. 
MESSAGE FILING Saving a message in a permanent place. 

REPEAT-SEND-BY- Sending a message more than once; automatically 

COUNT "counts" number of times, perhaps ewery hour, etc. 

RETURN RECEIPT Notice given sender when message is read by addressee. 
REGISTERED Addressee must acknowledge receipt before reading 

message. 

URGENT Message placed on top of addressee's queue. 

SPEND PRIVATE Addressee must enter password before permission to 

read is granted. 
CANCEL SEND Cancel if not delivered. 
BLIND COPY Send copy without so noting on carbon copy. 

HIERARCHICAL Usercode permission follows organizational structure. 

USERCODE 
BINARY FILE Binary codes which can not be represented by ASCII 

characters 

E-Mail vendors sometimes offer two levels of user service, with separate 
rates for each. One level is for the novice who needs constant reminder of 
menu selections. This level is referred to as Basic on the spreadsheet. The 
user 1s presented with a menu before each change, there-by helping to make 
operation easier. The more experienced user becomes annoyed by frequent 
appearance of menus and would prefer an abbreviated form of controlling the 
communication session. This is the Advanced class of service. 

Some vendors have provisions for addressing mail to courier services for 
hand delivery, this is sometimes referred to as paper mail. Access 1s also 
provided by some vendors to Telex I and Telex II, domestic and International 
customers. Messages can be delivered to these facilities by mailbox or to an 
auto -answer modem. 

Help facilities are available both on line and by calling an (800) number 
for operator assistance. DIALCOM has the ability to communicate with an 
operator while on line by typing messages. All vendors have a Customer 
service telephone number, usually toll free, to provide operator assistance. 
Not all are available 24 hours a day, however. The spreadsheet Indicates 
which are not available 24 hours by showing the number of hours (e.g. 12) an 
operator Is available. 

For those vendors providing the service, various means of sending, 
reading, and deleting messages are available. It Is possible to post a 
message and have It sent after a specified time and date, and to have the 
message repeated a specified number of times; or append a message to one which 
has been received and forward both messages to another addressee. These 
services are available for the standard rates quoted, not as add-ons. Of 
course not all vendors offer the same services. DIALCOM and Telenet seem to 
offer the most of these additional services, of the six vendors contacted. 



J-4 



Many vendors offer a Bulletin Board service which can be exclusive to a 
group of users. This feature allows up and down loading of binary files, such 
as copies of PC programs. Most are using the XMODEM file transfer protocol 
which is common to most PC communications software packages. 

Gateways are offered to other networks; however, some vendors permit 
access to information services only, such as CompuServe. 



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APPENDIX K 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



K-l 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Fritz j. cf. Kaldenbach, and L.M. Progar, L^ai_A X £a_N £i works : 
S^morL^adeiines, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1985. 

Green ^ IfiP^U^, Glenview, 111.: Scott, Foresman and 
Company, 1985. 

™ c on ; T ;V, D \ F - cobb * and G - B - Cobb ' ^^^^^ 

VisiCak to l-M , Indianapolis: Que Corporation. 

f*-****^^^ 4th edition, Minneapolis- 

Architecture Technology Corporation, 1985. 

Robertshaw, J.E., s.J. Mecca, and M.N. Rerick, P^l^^Mn^^^ 
Afifiro^h, New York: Petrocelli Books, 1978. * m * m - 

flings. H.. LMilJtet^. New York: Macminan publ1sMng ^^^ 

ARTICLES AND REPORTS: 

Aarons, R., "R: B ase System V Packs Enough of a Punch to Challenge dBASE - 
PC Magazmp, October 28, 1986. 

Alsop, S., and B. Machrone, "Awards for Technical Excellence- PC M* M ,in a 
Honors the Industry," PC^ziM, December 9, 1986 ' 

Antonuccio, A., "Tape Backup Systems," BYIE. May 1986. 

Au.rb.ch Publishers, Inc., "Local Area Networks" in A^p^a^ 
J^hnoloqvR.nnrf,. n,^^ Ff1 „ 1pmrn| ]g85 -^^-^SmiSL 

t7h' I' 10 "! Area N6tWOrk ACC6SS Pr0t0C0ls,, m Aii^ri^hj^^ 
Ig&hnoloqy Reports n.*,^ r^npmnA. 1986. 



K-2 



n L0 ca1 Area Networks: Market Analysis" in Auerhach Computer 
Torhnnlnav Re ports: Dataromm Equipment, 1986. 

._.-, "Local Area Networks: Specifications Chart" in A nerhach Computer 
T rhnn1nav Rer -^' Patacomm Equipment, 1986. 

.. Ne eds Assessment for Microcomputer LANs" in At.Prharh Computer 
whnnlnQv Re pots: Datacomm Equipment, 1985. 

...., "Standards for Local Area Networks" in ^mchSmmieLJ^hnslom 
Rep orts: P n?r? mm Equipment. 1986. 

Bermant. C. and B. <*». "Special Reports: The Second Annual PC Magazine 
Awards ror Technical Excellence: The Envelope Please." »«. 
August 1986. 

"The Best of 1986," PC Magazine, January 13, 1987. 

Brenner, A., "Buyer's Guide: 8 Network Operating Systems, " LAOaaaziM, 
January 1987. 

§ -Round-up: Profiles of all the Servers on the Market." LAN 

Magazine . October 1986. 

Brown, B.. "Six New Printers: $599 to $1,945." PJLHmziJX* 
November 11, 1986. 

t .'SuperCalc 4: A Great Contender," PC_Ma^zine, January 27. 1987. 

"Comprehensive Product Guide." PC Terh Journal . Vol. 4. No. 13. 1987. 

Datapro Research Corp.. "All About Microcomputer Local Area Networks" in 
p^ ft p m Rpnorts ™ n. f Cnmmuni rations (Vol . 1) . 1986. 

...., "Data Management and Database Management" in Miiirojam*^^ 
October 1986. 

, -Microrim R:Base System V" in Pata pro Reports on Microco jimitejri, 

September 1986. 

K-3 



----, "Most Active Packages of Database Management" m mammm^ 
Software October 1986. r 

March ?m. Rat1n9S ° f Microcomputer Soft — " m Mkr^aut^^t^, 

Derfler. Jr., F.J., "Connectivity: LANs and Beyond", PCjiaflazine 
December 9, 1986. H -' 

, "Making Connections: AT&T's StarLAN " pc Man a ,^« n 

oiarL«N, fi Magazine, December 23, 1986. 

----. "Making Connections: Fox Research's 10-NET," £C_Ma^2Lne 
February 10, 1987. 

— . "Making Connections: The IBM Token-Ring Network," RU&minz 
January 13, 1987. ■pw^iny , 

. "Making Connections: LANs Under NetWare", PCMaoazine 
December 9, 1986. 

D;c"; m j a r' M c r ect1ons: Tausrass,s lan c ^-" ? -^^' 

»r» ; 4 M ; k ; 9 n 8 9 7 connectiMs: 3c *' «...„,* and t«*.„-r,„ Bi . pc.*^, 

Aprn' ; 8 M ; k ;; 9 7 C0 "" ecti0 - : » W» ,» Perspective," PtJUauln,, 

--. "An Overview of Networking Options", sutmzi^, December 9. ,986. 

, "The Software Key to LANs". PCJiaaiine.. December 9. 1986. 

Dickinson J., -The Business of Words: Corporate. Professional, 
Personal," PCJasjalne, January 28, 1986. 



■. "Daisy Wheel Printers," PC_Migazine., November 11. 1 



986. 



K-4 



„__, "Dot Matrix Printers," PC Magazine,, November 11, 1986. 

f " Lase r Printers, " PC Magazine , November 11, 1986. 

._._, "The Third Annual Survey: Printers," PC_Majazini. November 11, 1986. 

Dickinson. J.. B. Machrone. A. Poor, and J. Seymour, "Laser Printer 
Technology: Great Performance For Under $3,000," PJLM^Zine., 
April 28, 1987. 

Desposlto. 0.. "Computers: As Fast as an AT or Faster." PLMMZiM. 
December 9, 1986. 

§ .. F1 ie Managers Get a Face-lift," POa^aziM, January 27, 1987. 

Feldman. P., "Program-Development Tool Is Geared to dBASE III Plus," P£ 
WEEK . January 6, 1987. 

Francis, P.L.. "R:base Compatible with Token-Ring," PC_W£EK, 
November 25, 1986. 

.. Ser1es of Add-In Programs Transform 1-2-3 into User Shell," 
PC HEEK . January 6, 1987. 

Goodwin, M., "Network Giants Square Off." PCJdojdi, April 1987. 

"The Great Spreadsheet Face-off." ELMmzlllZ. May 28. 1985. 

Hart. G.. "Adding Speed and Functions to dBASE." ECJiaaazlM. 
June 24. 1986. 

Harts, B.. "The Ricoh Laser Engine: Challenging Canon's Laser Technology," 
PQ Magazine . November 11, 1986. 

Houston. J.. "Don't Bench Me In." BYJE. February 1984. 



K-5 



Howard, B., "Compaq Deskpro 386 Ushers in 32-Bit PC Era " PC ten^i 
October 14, 1986. ' EQj ^^im, 

"Integrated Spreadsheets," PJ^WEEK, November 26, 1985. 

McClure, R., "Eight Ways to Improve WordPerfect," PCM^zine 
April 14, 1987. w ' 

Manes, S., "The 386 in Fantasyland," KLMasazin*. March 10, 1987. 

Z^\l\ZT re uti1ities Fin the Duty Roster '" p -^^' 

Naiman, A., "Evaluating Word-Processing Programs," BYIE, February 1984. 

National Software Testing Laboratories, "Backup Systems," ^^ 
Mi9£Si - — Ratings Rppnrt, Marcn 1987> 

— . "Communications Programs," SoJ^wju^jJig,^^^ 

September 1986. — — EEi-L£iisr, 

aph,' i'986 PUter EVa ' UaiM Rep ° rt '" isai ^^^-Miimui S M i im S r. 

«. *Z m r ,e Eva,uatton Report -" a*-**-*^*-. 

i^sr™ ;;r se Mana9eraent pro9rams '" ^^^^m 

Ma7;9e6 SPr " dSheet Pr09^a "' S •" ****" "*"*' Ratin ^ "WttHttir. 

----. "Word Processing Programs." Software m n .«f RaH nn. ».., ,. ttr . 
January 1986. — H ^ "wiffmr . 



Novell » In C, LAN Evaluarinn Pa pn-t 1 



986. 



K-6 



t IAN O perati n g System Report 19 36, 1986. 

-The PC Magazine Printer Guide," PC_MMazin£, November 11. 1986. 

Petzold. C, "The Two Faces of IBM's 8-MHz AT," PC_Ma3azin£, 
September 30, 1986. 

Poor, A., "Database Power Puts on an Easy Interface," PC_MaS4ZlM, 
January 27, 1987. 

, -High Speed ATs: Life in the Fast Lane," PJUteliM. April 14. 1987. 

f .. LAN software Comes of Age," PC Magazine, October 28, 1986. 

•■Programmable Relational Data Bases." P£JdMazin£, June 24, 1986. 

Puglia, V.. "Software Safety Nets for Hand Disk Data," PC Magazine , August 
1986. 

-Relational Data Bases," PC Magazine, June 24, 1986. 

Rosch, W.L., "Backup Master, Intelligent Backups Save Time and Offer Peace 
of Mind," PC Magazine . December 23. 1986. 

t "Better Tools for Backup." PC Magazine. April 28. 1987. 

§ .. Eas ier Than DOS Debug: Six Utilities For Byte-Level Editing," 

PC. Magazine . October 14, 1986. 

, Tape and Disk: Storage with a Safety Net," ECJtaMZiM. July 1986. 

Rubel, M.C., "Four 1/4-Inch Tape Backup Units." BYIE, October 1986. 

, "Microsoft Hord Version 3.0," ffitlE. October 1986. 

Somerson, P., "PC's Ltd. Breakthrough: 16-MHz, $2,995 Screamer." 
PC Magazine . September 30, 1986. 



K-7 



Stafford, P.M., "The Cheapest PCs Ever " Pr m»«»i». n * u 

k rui tver, PC Magazine, October 14, 1986. 

, "The Twin, a 1-2-3 Clone," PCJiaaazine, August 1986. 

— -, "Tandy Expands Line of Low-Cost PCs, ATs," PU^milm 
September 30, 1986. E ' 

«, D ;; 8 ; packa9es Connect users ' Not *•* — - ™ 

Stoll, M.. "WordStar Gets Major Upgrade," P£_WEEK, January 6, 1987. 

Stone M.D "Asynchronous Communications: Shopping for Software " PC 
Maflazinfi, October 28, 1986. ^ 

. "Beyond the Hayes Standard," PJLMa^zinfi, November 25, 1986. 

22; ?;: it 3 Knockoffs: H0W close Do They come? '" **■**• 



Trotter G.J., and R.W. Rakes, "An Approach to Ethernet Broadband Loca 
ArGa NetW ° rkS " in *™-™^^ 



1 
1986. 



Ur.ch.ll. W., " R:B ase: The Promise Expressed," P^mA, February 1987. 
"Word Processing Chart Definitions," PC^EEK, November 19, 1985. 
VENDOR PRODUCT LITERATURE: 
Ashton-Tate, dBASE ITT pi„ c 
Banyan Systems Inc., BNS Network ^r»r 1987 . 
• DTS Network Z°ry?r, 1987. 



K-8 



, j^nnrQ r~, r +»r N.tworkina SvsteiD&-irflBLSHBg ]e Clusters to 

r^pnr^tP Networks . 1986. 

, vtnfs/286 Newark Server, 1987. 

Computer Associates, S^rCaK_4Jis^^ 
July 1986, 2nd edition. 

Information Builders Inc., PC/Fqcus , 1986. 

Leading Edge Software Products Inc.. U3 4i^_E fl c 1 P_W^r^^ 
Guide . 1984. 

Micro Data Base Systems. Inc., KnowJ^dsMan/O*!^^ ™* 1986 ' 

, tmnwi prloeman, " "^'s Guide. July 1986. 

MicroPro International Corp., mmM^f^n^MMml, Version 3.3, 1983. 

Microrim Inc., B^J^i^^ 
nirtionarv . 1986. 

, p-r^p System " loarnpr's Guide, 1986. 

, p-ra cp Svste ™ » liar's Manual, 1986. 

Microsoft Corp., Microsoft Wprd, Version 1.1. 
Mosaic Software Inc., The THIN, Version 1.4. 1983. 

Novell, Inc., Hft Ua " n p»™t1nn System Software , 1986. 

, HrtH-" »"*"•* Overview, Rev 2.01, December 1986. 

Oracle Corp., Oracle (3 vols.). 

Samna Corp., S*mna NQ r d HI, 1983. 



K-9 



Satellite Software International, WordPexfe^t, Version 4.1. 

3Com Corporation, 3Server3 Product HimHp , 7937. 

Unify Corporation, Ujiify_RMalionai_DBMS , Version 3.2, April 1986. 



K-10